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Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2017; 58(3):871-883.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Evidence of a role for vitamin D (VitD) in cognitive aging is mixed and based primarily on extreme VitD deficiency. We evaluated the association of VitD insufficiency with cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults living in a temperate climate with year-round sunshine.

METHODS

A population-based longitudinal study of 1,058 adults (median age 75; 62% women) who had cognitive function assessed and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) measured in 1997-99 and were followed for up to three additional cognitive function assessments over a 12-year period.

RESULTS

Overall, 14% (n = 145) of participants had VitD insufficiency defined as 25OHD <30 ng/ml. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and season, VitD insufficiency was associated with poorer baseline performance on the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) (p = 0.013), Trails Making Test B (Trails B) (p = 0.015), Category Fluency (p = 0.006), and Long Term Retrieval (p = 0.019); differences were equivalent to 5 years of age. For those with VitD insufficiency, the odds of mildly impaired performance at baseline were 38% higher for MMSE (p = 0.08), 78% higher for Trails B (p = 0.017), and 2-fold higher for Category Fluency and Long Term Retrieval (both p = 0.001). VitD insufficiency was not related to the rate of cognitive decline on any test or the risk of developing impaired performance during follow-up.

CONCLUSION

In this population with little VitD deficiency, even moderately low VitD was associated with poorer performance on multiple domains of cognitive function. Low VitD did not predict 12-year cognitive decline. Clinical trials are essential to establish a causal link between VitD and cognitive well-being.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, VA San Diego Healthcare System, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28505973

Citation

Laughlin, Gail A., et al. "Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, vol. 58, no. 3, 2017, pp. 871-883.
Laughlin GA, Kritz-Silverstein D, Bergstrom J, et al. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;58(3):871-883.
Laughlin, G. A., Kritz-Silverstein, D., Bergstrom, J., Reas, E. T., Jassal, S. K., Barrett-Connor, E., & McEvoy, L. K. (2017). Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, 58(3), 871-883. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-161295
Laughlin GA, et al. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;58(3):871-883. PubMed PMID: 28505973.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study. AU - Laughlin,Gail A, AU - Kritz-Silverstein,Donna, AU - Bergstrom,Jaclyn, AU - Reas,Emilie T, AU - Jassal,Simerjot K, AU - Barrett-Connor,Elizabeth, AU - McEvoy,Linda K, PY - 2017/5/17/pubmed PY - 2018/3/22/medline PY - 2017/5/17/entrez KW - Cognitive aging KW - cognitive function KW - epidemiology KW - longitudinal study KW - vitamin D SP - 871 EP - 883 JF - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD JO - J. Alzheimers Dis. VL - 58 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Evidence of a role for vitamin D (VitD) in cognitive aging is mixed and based primarily on extreme VitD deficiency. We evaluated the association of VitD insufficiency with cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults living in a temperate climate with year-round sunshine. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study of 1,058 adults (median age 75; 62% women) who had cognitive function assessed and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) measured in 1997-99 and were followed for up to three additional cognitive function assessments over a 12-year period. RESULTS: Overall, 14% (n = 145) of participants had VitD insufficiency defined as 25OHD <30 ng/ml. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and season, VitD insufficiency was associated with poorer baseline performance on the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) (p = 0.013), Trails Making Test B (Trails B) (p = 0.015), Category Fluency (p = 0.006), and Long Term Retrieval (p = 0.019); differences were equivalent to 5 years of age. For those with VitD insufficiency, the odds of mildly impaired performance at baseline were 38% higher for MMSE (p = 0.08), 78% higher for Trails B (p = 0.017), and 2-fold higher for Category Fluency and Long Term Retrieval (both p = 0.001). VitD insufficiency was not related to the rate of cognitive decline on any test or the risk of developing impaired performance during follow-up. CONCLUSION: In this population with little VitD deficiency, even moderately low VitD was associated with poorer performance on multiple domains of cognitive function. Low VitD did not predict 12-year cognitive decline. Clinical trials are essential to establish a causal link between VitD and cognitive well-being. SN - 1875-8908 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28505973/Vitamin_D_Insufficiency_and_Cognitive_Function_Trajectories_in_Older_Adults:_The_Rancho_Bernardo_Study_ L2 - https://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&amp;id=doi:10.3233/JAD-161295 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -