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37 year snacking trends for US children 1977-2014.
Pediatr Obes. 2018 04; 13(4):247-255.PO

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calorie intake of American children and that the energy density of snacks in US diets has increased in recent decades.

OBJECTIVE

Examine short-term and long-term trends in the energy density and food sources of snacks for US children from 1977 to 2014, and examine whether trends differ between socio-demographic groups.

METHODS

We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 49,952 US children age 2-18 years, between 1977 and 2014. Overall patterns of snacking, trends in energy intake from snacking, trends in food and beverage sources and energy density of snacks across race-ethnic, age, gender, education and income groups were examined.

RESULTS

In all socio-demographic groups, there was a significant increase in per capita energy intake deriving from snacks from 1977 to 2014 (P < 0.01). Salty snack intake doubled over the study period, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake decreased overall from 1977 to 2014 but increased in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Non-Hispanic Blacks had the largest increase in per capita intake from foods as a snack from 1977 to 2014. Children in the lowest poverty level and household education groups had more than 100% increase in calorie intake from snacks from 1977 to 2014.

CONCLUSIONS

We found that snacking behaviour in the USA differs between race-ethnic, household education, gender and income groups, yet snacking remains a significant component of children's diets and the foods consumed at these snacks are not the types of foods recommended by the US dietary guidelines.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Carolina Population Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA. Food Policy Division, The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.Carolina Population Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA. Department of Nutrition, Gillings Global School of Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28508580

Citation

Dunford, E K., and B M. Popkin. "37 Year Snacking Trends for US Children 1977-2014." Pediatric Obesity, vol. 13, no. 4, 2018, pp. 247-255.
Dunford EK, Popkin BM. 37 year snacking trends for US children 1977-2014. Pediatr Obes. 2018;13(4):247-255.
Dunford, E. K., & Popkin, B. M. (2018). 37 year snacking trends for US children 1977-2014. Pediatric Obesity, 13(4), 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12220
Dunford EK, Popkin BM. 37 Year Snacking Trends for US Children 1977-2014. Pediatr Obes. 2018;13(4):247-255. PubMed PMID: 28508580.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - 37 year snacking trends for US children 1977-2014. AU - Dunford,E K, AU - Popkin,B M, Y1 - 2017/05/15/ PY - 2016/11/21/received PY - 2017/02/01/revised PY - 2017/03/24/accepted PY - 2017/5/17/pubmed PY - 2018/11/14/medline PY - 2017/5/17/entrez KW - Children KW - dietary intake KW - race-ethnic differences KW - salty snacks KW - snacking trends SP - 247 EP - 255 JF - Pediatric obesity JO - Pediatr Obes VL - 13 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calorie intake of American children and that the energy density of snacks in US diets has increased in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: Examine short-term and long-term trends in the energy density and food sources of snacks for US children from 1977 to 2014, and examine whether trends differ between socio-demographic groups. METHODS: We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 49,952 US children age 2-18 years, between 1977 and 2014. Overall patterns of snacking, trends in energy intake from snacking, trends in food and beverage sources and energy density of snacks across race-ethnic, age, gender, education and income groups were examined. RESULTS: In all socio-demographic groups, there was a significant increase in per capita energy intake deriving from snacks from 1977 to 2014 (P < 0.01). Salty snack intake doubled over the study period, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake decreased overall from 1977 to 2014 but increased in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Non-Hispanic Blacks had the largest increase in per capita intake from foods as a snack from 1977 to 2014. Children in the lowest poverty level and household education groups had more than 100% increase in calorie intake from snacks from 1977 to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: We found that snacking behaviour in the USA differs between race-ethnic, household education, gender and income groups, yet snacking remains a significant component of children's diets and the foods consumed at these snacks are not the types of foods recommended by the US dietary guidelines. SN - 2047-6310 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28508580/37_year_snacking_trends_for_US_children_1977_2014_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12220 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -