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Silk gene expression of theridiid spiders: implications for male-specific silk use.
Zoology (Jena) 2017; 122:107-114Z

Abstract

Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae). We de novo assembled species-specific male transcriptomes from Latrodectus hesperus, Latrodectus geometricus, and Steatoda grossa followed by differential gene expression analyses. Consistent with their complement of silk spigots, male theridiid spiders express appreciable amounts of aciniform, major ampullate, minor ampullate, and pyriform spidroin genes but not tubuliform spidroin genes. The relative expression levels of particular spidroin genes varied between sexes and species. Because mature males desert their prey-capture webs and become cursorial in their search for mates, we anticipated that major ampullate (dragline) spidroin genes would be the silk genes most highly expressed by males. Indeed, major ampullate spidroin genes had the highest expression in S. grossa males. However, minor ampullate spidroin genes were the most highly expressed spidroin genes in L. geometricus and L. hesperus males. Our expression profiling results suggest species-specific adaptive divergence of silk use by male theridiids.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Electronic address: scorr006@ucr.edu.Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Electronic address: rcrystal@ucr.edu.Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; Department of Biology, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA 24450, USA; J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Electronic address: clarket@wlu.edu.Department of Biology, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA 24450, USA. Electronic address: ayoubn@wlu.edu.Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA. Electronic address: chayashi@amnh.org.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28536006

Citation

Correa-Garhwal, Sandra M., et al. "Silk Gene Expression of Theridiid Spiders: Implications for Male-specific Silk Use." Zoology (Jena, Germany), vol. 122, 2017, pp. 107-114.
Correa-Garhwal SM, Chaw RC, Clarke TH, et al. Silk gene expression of theridiid spiders: implications for male-specific silk use. Zoology (Jena). 2017;122:107-114.
Correa-Garhwal, S. M., Chaw, R. C., Clarke, T. H., Ayoub, N. A., & Hayashi, C. Y. (2017). Silk gene expression of theridiid spiders: implications for male-specific silk use. Zoology (Jena, Germany), 122, pp. 107-114. doi:10.1016/j.zool.2017.04.003.
Correa-Garhwal SM, et al. Silk Gene Expression of Theridiid Spiders: Implications for Male-specific Silk Use. Zoology (Jena). 2017;122:107-114. PubMed PMID: 28536006.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Silk gene expression of theridiid spiders: implications for male-specific silk use. AU - Correa-Garhwal,Sandra M, AU - Chaw,R Crystal, AU - Clarke,Thomas H,3rd AU - Ayoub,Nadia A, AU - Hayashi,Cheryl Y, Y1 - 2017/04/26/ PY - 2016/09/30/received PY - 2017/04/21/revised PY - 2017/04/21/accepted PY - 2017/5/26/pubmed PY - 2017/9/16/medline PY - 2017/5/25/entrez KW - Differential gene expression KW - Male spiders KW - Spider silk KW - Spidroins SP - 107 EP - 114 JF - Zoology (Jena, Germany) JO - Zoology (Jena) VL - 122 N2 - Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae). We de novo assembled species-specific male transcriptomes from Latrodectus hesperus, Latrodectus geometricus, and Steatoda grossa followed by differential gene expression analyses. Consistent with their complement of silk spigots, male theridiid spiders express appreciable amounts of aciniform, major ampullate, minor ampullate, and pyriform spidroin genes but not tubuliform spidroin genes. The relative expression levels of particular spidroin genes varied between sexes and species. Because mature males desert their prey-capture webs and become cursorial in their search for mates, we anticipated that major ampullate (dragline) spidroin genes would be the silk genes most highly expressed by males. Indeed, major ampullate spidroin genes had the highest expression in S. grossa males. However, minor ampullate spidroin genes were the most highly expressed spidroin genes in L. geometricus and L. hesperus males. Our expression profiling results suggest species-specific adaptive divergence of silk use by male theridiids. SN - 1873-2720 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28536006/Silk_gene_expression_of_theridiid_spiders:_implications_for_male_specific_silk_use_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0944-2006(16)30118-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -