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Effects of Wet-Blending on Detection of Melamine in Spray-Dried Lactose.
J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jul 19; 65(28):5789-5798.JA

Abstract

During the development of rapid screening methods to detect economic adulteration, spray-dried milk powders prepared by dissolving melamine in liquid milk exhibited an unexpected loss of characteristic melamine features in the near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectra. To further characterize this "wet-blending" phenomenon, spray-dried melamine and lactose samples were produced as a simplified model and investigated by NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and direct analysis in real time Fourier transform mass spectrometry (DART-FTMS). In contrast to dry-blended samples, characteristic melamine bands in NIR and Raman spectra disappeared or shifted in wet-blended lactose-melamine samples. Subtle shifts in melamine 1H NMR spectra between wet- and dry-blended samples indicated differences in melamine hydrogen-bonding status. Qualitative DART-FTMS analysis of powders detected a greater relative abundance of lactose-melamine condensation product ions in the wet-blended samples, which supported a hypothesis that wet-blending facilitates early Maillard reactions in spray-dried samples. Collectively, these data indicated that the formation of weak, H bonded complexes and labile, early Maillard reaction products between lactose and melamine contribute to spectral differences observed between wet- and dry-blended milk powder samples. These results have implications for future evaluations of adulterated powders and emphasize the important role of sample preparation methods on adulterant detection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Research and Development, Abbott Nutrition , 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio 43219, United States.Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Research and Development, Abbott Nutrition , 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio 43219, United States.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.United States Pharmacopeial Convention , 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland 20852, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28538102

Citation

Yakes, Betsy Jean, et al. "Effects of Wet-Blending On Detection of Melamine in Spray-Dried Lactose." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 28, 2017, pp. 5789-5798.
Yakes BJ, Bergana MM, Scholl PF, et al. Effects of Wet-Blending on Detection of Melamine in Spray-Dried Lactose. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65(28):5789-5798.
Yakes, B. J., Bergana, M. M., Scholl, P. F., Mossoba, M. M., Karunathilaka, S. R., Ackerman, L. K., Holton, J. D., Gao, B., & Moore, J. C. (2017). Effects of Wet-Blending on Detection of Melamine in Spray-Dried Lactose. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(28), 5789-5798. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00834
Yakes BJ, et al. Effects of Wet-Blending On Detection of Melamine in Spray-Dried Lactose. J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jul 19;65(28):5789-5798. PubMed PMID: 28538102.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Wet-Blending on Detection of Melamine in Spray-Dried Lactose. AU - Yakes,Betsy Jean, AU - Bergana,Marti M, AU - Scholl,Peter F, AU - Mossoba,Magdi M, AU - Karunathilaka,Sanjeewa R, AU - Ackerman,Luke K, AU - Holton,Jason D, AU - Gao,Boyan, AU - Moore,Jeffrey C, Y1 - 2017/07/06/ PY - 2017/5/26/pubmed PY - 2017/7/29/medline PY - 2017/5/25/entrez KW - DART−FTMS KW - H bonding KW - Maillard reaction KW - NIR KW - NMR KW - Raman spectroscopy KW - adulteration KW - lactose KW - melamine KW - milk powder KW - wet-blending SP - 5789 EP - 5798 JF - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry JO - J Agric Food Chem VL - 65 IS - 28 N2 - During the development of rapid screening methods to detect economic adulteration, spray-dried milk powders prepared by dissolving melamine in liquid milk exhibited an unexpected loss of characteristic melamine features in the near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectra. To further characterize this "wet-blending" phenomenon, spray-dried melamine and lactose samples were produced as a simplified model and investigated by NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and direct analysis in real time Fourier transform mass spectrometry (DART-FTMS). In contrast to dry-blended samples, characteristic melamine bands in NIR and Raman spectra disappeared or shifted in wet-blended lactose-melamine samples. Subtle shifts in melamine 1H NMR spectra between wet- and dry-blended samples indicated differences in melamine hydrogen-bonding status. Qualitative DART-FTMS analysis of powders detected a greater relative abundance of lactose-melamine condensation product ions in the wet-blended samples, which supported a hypothesis that wet-blending facilitates early Maillard reactions in spray-dried samples. Collectively, these data indicated that the formation of weak, H bonded complexes and labile, early Maillard reaction products between lactose and melamine contribute to spectral differences observed between wet- and dry-blended milk powder samples. These results have implications for future evaluations of adulterated powders and emphasize the important role of sample preparation methods on adulterant detection. SN - 1520-5118 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28538102/Effects_of_Wet_Blending_on_Detection_of_Melamine_in_Spray_Dried_Lactose_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00834 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -