Reduced-Intensity Conditioning with Busulfan, Fludarabine, and Antithymocyte Globulin for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from Unrelated or Haploidentical Family Donors in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017 Sep; 23(9):1555-1566.BB
To investigate the role of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-containing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated (UD) or haploidentical family donors (HFD), we conducted a phase 2 trial of 237 patients (age range, 16 to 69 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission. Patients undergoing UD-HCT (n = 93) or HFD-HCT (n = 59) received RIC comprising busulfan, fludarabine, and ATG, 9 mg/kg, whereas those undergoing HCT from matched sibling donors (MSD, n = 85) received myeloablative busulfan and cyclophosphamide conditioning or aforementioned RIC with ATG, 4.5 mg/kg. For graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, cyclosporine and methotrexate were administered. The median follow-up period was 44.7 months after HCT for 161 survivors. For UD-HCT versus HFD-HCT, there were no significant differences in leukemia recurrence, nonrelapse mortality, relapse-free survival, grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD, and moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD. Furthermore, when the outcomes of UD-HCT and HFD-HCT were combined and compared with those of MSD-HCT, there were no significant differences in leukemia recurrence (3-year cumulative incidence, 30% versus 29%), nonrelapse mortality (3-year cumulative incidence, 7% versus 8%), relapse-free survival (3-year estimate, 63% versus 63%), and grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD (120-day cumulative incidence, 16% versus 13%). Moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD, however, occurred less frequently in UD/HFD-HCT (2-year cumulative incidence, 22% versus 40%; P = .006). The addition of ATG to conditioning regimen was a significant predictor for less chronic GVHD (subdistribution hazard ratio, .59). In AML in remission, UD/HFD-HCT after ATG-containing RIC achieved leukemia control equivalent to that of MSD-HCT. Despite HLA disparity in UD/HFD-HCT, chronic GVHD occurred less frequently after ATG-containing RIC, suggesting a strong GVHD-modulating effect of ATG.