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Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun; 11(6):e0005654.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the Americas, and elsewhere in the world. ZIKV and CHIKV co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There is a growing number of case reports of ZIKV and CHIKV co-infections in humans, but it is uncertain whether co-infection occurs via single or multiple mosquito bites. Here we investigate the potential of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to transmit both ZIKV and CHIKV in one bite, and we assess the consequences of co-infection on vector competence.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

First, growth curves indicated that co-infection with CHIKV negatively affects ZIKV production in mammalian, but not in mosquito cells. Next, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were infected with ZIKV, CHIKV, or co-infected via an infectious blood meal or intrathoracic injections. Infection and transmission rates, as well as viral titers of positive mosquitoes, were determined at 14 days after blood meal or 7 days after injection. Saliva and bodies of (co-)infected mosquitoes were scored concurrently for the presence of ZIKV and/or CHIKV using a dual-colour immunofluorescence assay. The results show that orally exposed Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are highly competent, with transmission rates of up to 73% for ZIKV, 21% for CHIKV, and 12% of mosquitoes transmitting both viruses in one bite. However, simultaneous oral exposure to both viruses did not change infection and transmission rates compared to exposure to a single virus. Intrathoracic injections indicate that the selected strain of Ae. aegypti has a strong salivary gland barrier for CHIKV, but a less profound barrier for ZIKV.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

This study shows that Ae. aegypti can transmit both ZIKV and CHIKV via a single bite. Furthermore, co-infection of ZIKV and CHIKV does not influence the vector competence of Ae. aegypti.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28570693

Citation

Göertz, Giel P., et al. "Mosquito Co-infection With Zika and Chikungunya Virus Allows Simultaneous Transmission Without Affecting Vector Competence of Aedes Aegypti." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 11, no. 6, 2017, pp. e0005654.
Göertz GP, Vogels CBF, Geertsema C, et al. Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(6):e0005654.
Göertz, G. P., Vogels, C. B. F., Geertsema, C., Koenraadt, C. J. M., & Pijlman, G. P. (2017). Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(6), e0005654. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005654
Göertz GP, et al. Mosquito Co-infection With Zika and Chikungunya Virus Allows Simultaneous Transmission Without Affecting Vector Competence of Aedes Aegypti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(6):e0005654. PubMed PMID: 28570693.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mosquito co-infection with Zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of Aedes aegypti. AU - Göertz,Giel P, AU - Vogels,Chantal B F, AU - Geertsema,Corinne, AU - Koenraadt,Constantianus J M, AU - Pijlman,Gorben P, Y1 - 2017/06/01/ PY - 2017/02/06/received PY - 2017/05/19/accepted PY - 2017/06/13/revised PY - 2017/6/2/pubmed PY - 2017/7/22/medline PY - 2017/6/2/entrez SP - e0005654 EP - e0005654 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 11 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the Americas, and elsewhere in the world. ZIKV and CHIKV co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There is a growing number of case reports of ZIKV and CHIKV co-infections in humans, but it is uncertain whether co-infection occurs via single or multiple mosquito bites. Here we investigate the potential of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to transmit both ZIKV and CHIKV in one bite, and we assess the consequences of co-infection on vector competence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, growth curves indicated that co-infection with CHIKV negatively affects ZIKV production in mammalian, but not in mosquito cells. Next, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were infected with ZIKV, CHIKV, or co-infected via an infectious blood meal or intrathoracic injections. Infection and transmission rates, as well as viral titers of positive mosquitoes, were determined at 14 days after blood meal or 7 days after injection. Saliva and bodies of (co-)infected mosquitoes were scored concurrently for the presence of ZIKV and/or CHIKV using a dual-colour immunofluorescence assay. The results show that orally exposed Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are highly competent, with transmission rates of up to 73% for ZIKV, 21% for CHIKV, and 12% of mosquitoes transmitting both viruses in one bite. However, simultaneous oral exposure to both viruses did not change infection and transmission rates compared to exposure to a single virus. Intrathoracic injections indicate that the selected strain of Ae. aegypti has a strong salivary gland barrier for CHIKV, but a less profound barrier for ZIKV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that Ae. aegypti can transmit both ZIKV and CHIKV via a single bite. Furthermore, co-infection of ZIKV and CHIKV does not influence the vector competence of Ae. aegypti. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28570693/Mosquito_co_infection_with_Zika_and_chikungunya_virus_allows_simultaneous_transmission_without_affecting_vector_competence_of_Aedes_aegypti_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005654 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -