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Diabetic retinopathy and dysregulated innate immunity.
Vision Res. 2017 10; 139:39-46.VR

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the progressive degeneration of retinal blood vessels and neurons. Inflammation is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR. During diabetes, metabolic disorder leads to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) both in the retina and elsewhere in the body. The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against the DAMPs. In the early stages of DR when the blood retinal barrier (BRB) is intact, retinal microglia and the complement system are activated at low levels. This low-level of inflammation (para-inflammation) is believed to be essential to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. However, prolonged stimulation by DAMPs in the diabetic eye leads to maladaptation of the innate immune system and dysregulated para-inflammation may contribute to DR development. In the advanced stages of DR where immune privilege is comprised, circulating immune cells and serum proteins may infiltrate the retina and participate in retinal chronic inflammation and retinal vascular and neuronal damage. This review discusses how the innate immune system is activated in diabetes and DR. The view also discusses why the protective immune response becomes detrimental in DR.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Biomedical Science, Queen's University Belfast, UK. Electronic address: heping.xu@qub.ac.uk.Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Biomedical Science, Queen's University Belfast, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28571700

Citation

Xu, Heping, and Mei Chen. "Diabetic Retinopathy and Dysregulated Innate Immunity." Vision Research, vol. 139, 2017, pp. 39-46.
Xu H, Chen M. Diabetic retinopathy and dysregulated innate immunity. Vision Res. 2017;139:39-46.
Xu, H., & Chen, M. (2017). Diabetic retinopathy and dysregulated innate immunity. Vision Research, 139, 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2017.04.013
Xu H, Chen M. Diabetic Retinopathy and Dysregulated Innate Immunity. Vision Res. 2017;139:39-46. PubMed PMID: 28571700.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diabetic retinopathy and dysregulated innate immunity. AU - Xu,Heping, AU - Chen,Mei, Y1 - 2017/06/02/ PY - 2016/12/22/received PY - 2017/04/12/revised PY - 2017/04/13/accepted PY - 2017/6/3/pubmed PY - 2018/4/21/medline PY - 2017/6/3/entrez KW - Blood retina barrier KW - Complement KW - Diabetic retinopathy KW - Innate immunity KW - Macrophages KW - Neutrophils SP - 39 EP - 46 JF - Vision research JO - Vision Res VL - 139 N2 - Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the progressive degeneration of retinal blood vessels and neurons. Inflammation is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR. During diabetes, metabolic disorder leads to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) both in the retina and elsewhere in the body. The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against the DAMPs. In the early stages of DR when the blood retinal barrier (BRB) is intact, retinal microglia and the complement system are activated at low levels. This low-level of inflammation (para-inflammation) is believed to be essential to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. However, prolonged stimulation by DAMPs in the diabetic eye leads to maladaptation of the innate immune system and dysregulated para-inflammation may contribute to DR development. In the advanced stages of DR where immune privilege is comprised, circulating immune cells and serum proteins may infiltrate the retina and participate in retinal chronic inflammation and retinal vascular and neuronal damage. This review discusses how the innate immune system is activated in diabetes and DR. The view also discusses why the protective immune response becomes detrimental in DR. SN - 1878-5646 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28571700/Diabetic_retinopathy_and_dysregulated_innate_immunity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042-6989(17)30091-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -