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Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.
Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017 Aug; 67:119-128.FS

Abstract

The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1β and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. Electronic address: dr_samahkhalil@yahoo.com.Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28579523

Citation

Khalil, Samah R., et al. "Efficacy of Spirulina Platensis Diet Supplements On Disease Resistance and Immune-related Gene Expression in Cyprinus Carpio L. Exposed to Herbicide Atrazine." Fish & Shellfish Immunology, vol. 67, 2017, pp. 119-128.
Khalil SR, Reda RM, Awad A. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;67:119-128.
Khalil, S. R., Reda, R. M., & Awad, A. (2017). Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 67, 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.05.065
Khalil SR, Reda RM, Awad A. Efficacy of Spirulina Platensis Diet Supplements On Disease Resistance and Immune-related Gene Expression in Cyprinus Carpio L. Exposed to Herbicide Atrazine. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;67:119-128. PubMed PMID: 28579523.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine. AU - Khalil,Samah R, AU - Reda,Rasha M, AU - Awad,Ashraf, Y1 - 2017/06/01/ PY - 2017/01/04/received PY - 2017/05/24/revised PY - 2017/05/31/accepted PY - 2017/6/6/pubmed PY - 2017/12/19/medline PY - 2017/6/6/entrez KW - Atrazine KW - Complement C3 KW - Cyprinus carpio KW - Immunoglobulin M KW - Interleukin-1β KW - Lysozyme KW - Spirulina platensis SP - 119 EP - 128 JF - Fish & shellfish immunology JO - Fish Shellfish Immunol VL - 67 N2 - The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1β and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. SN - 1095-9947 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28579523/Efficacy_of_Spirulina_platensis_diet_supplements_on_disease_resistance_and_immune_related_gene_expression_in_Cyprinus_carpio_L__exposed_to_herbicide_atrazine_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1050-4648(17)30317-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -