Childhood Wilson Disease: Bangladesh Perspective.Mymensingh Med J. 2017 04; 26(2):406-413.MM
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting copper metabolism causing copper induced damage to various organs. In children liver is commonly involved. Central nervous system, eyes, RBC, kidneys, brain and bones may also be affected. Aim of the study is to evaluate clinical & laboratory profile of Wilson's disease in children. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2011 to December, 2013. One hundred consecutive children of WD between 3 to 18 years of age were evaluated for clinical & biochemical profile. Mean age of studied children was 8.5±1.5 years. Male female ratio was 2:1. Ninety one percent patients were Muslim and nine percent Hindu. Consanguinity of marriage was found in 30% cases. Seven parents were first degree cousin. Family history of chronic liver disease was present in 15% of patients. Most (53%) cases of the hepatic WD presented between 5 to 10 years of age and most of the neurologic WD manifested in 10-15 years age group. Among 100 patients of WD, 69 children presented only with hepatic manifestations, 6 only with neurological manifestations, 14 with both hepatic & neurological manifestation, 10 children was asymptomatic and 1 patient presented with psychiatric features. WD presented as chronic liver disease (CLD) in 42%, CLD with portal hypertension in 34%, acute hepatitis in 20% and fulminant hepatic failure in 4% cases. Stigmata of chronic liver disease were found in 18% patients. Commonest stigmata was thenar and hypothenar wasting (n=8). Keiser- Fleischser ring (K-F ring) was found in 76% of the total patients. K-F ring was present in 84% (58 out of 69) of the hepatic only Wilsonian patients and in 90% (18 out of 20) of all neurologic Wilsonian patients. Asymptomatic and psychiatric patient had no K-F ring. About 26% of the WD patients had Coombs negative hemolytic anemia in PBF. Most of the WD patients had altered liver function. Elevated serum transaminase was found in 85% of all cases, prolonged prothrombin time in 59% cases & low serum albumin in 53% cases. Seventy three percent patients had low serum ceruloplasmin, basal urinary copper of >100μgm/day was found in 81% cases and urinary copper following penicillamine challenge of >1200μgm/day was found in 92% cases. In 28 cases with hepatic presentation esophageal varices were identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. WD patient with hepatic presentations were given zinc sulphate along with penicillamine. All patients with neurological manifestation as well as asymptomatic cases were maintained on zinc therapy. WD is a treatable metabolic cause of liver disease. Majority of studied WD children presented with hepatic manifestation of which 76% presented with CLD. Any child presented with jaundice after the age of 3 years should be investigated for WD.