Comparative epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia and South Korea.Emerg Microbes Infect. 2017 Jun 07; 6(6):e51.EM
MERS-CoV infection emerged in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 2012 and has spread to 26 countries. However, 80% of all cases have occurred in KSA. The largest outbreak outside KSA occurred in South Korea (SK) in 2015. In this report, we describe an epidemiological comparison of the two outbreaks. Data from 1299 cases in KSA (2012-2015) and 186 cases in SK (2015) were collected from publicly available resources, including FluTrackers, the World Health Organization (WHO) outbreak news and the Saudi MOH (MOH). Descriptive analysis, t-tests, Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were conducted to compare demographic and other characteristics (comorbidity, contact history) of cases by nationality. Epidemic curves of the outbreaks were generated. The mean age of cases was 51 years in KSA and 54 years in SK. Older males (⩾70 years) were more likely to be infected or to die from MERS-CoV infection, and males exhibited increased rates of comorbidity in both countries. The epidemic pattern in KSA was more complex, with animal-to-human, human-to-human, nosocomial and unknown exposure, whereas the outbreak in SK was more clearly nosocomial. Of the 1186 MERS cases in KSA with reported risk factors, 158 (13.3%) cases were hospital associated compared with 175 (94.1%) in SK, and an increased proportion of cases with unknown exposure risk was found in KSA (710, 59.9%). In a globally connected world, travel is a risk factor for emerging infections, and health systems in all countries should implement better triage systems for potential imported cases of MERS-CoV to prevent large epidemics.