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Extinction and time help drive the marine-terrestrial biodiversity gradient: is the ocean a deathtrap?
Ecol Lett. 2017 07; 20(7):911-921.EL

Abstract

The marine-terrestrial richness gradient is among Earth's most dramatic biodiversity patterns, but its causes remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse detailed phylogenies of amniote clades, paleontological data and simulations to reveal the mechanisms underlying low marine richness, emphasising speciation, extinction and colonisation. We show that differences in diversification rates (speciation minus extinction) between habitats are often weak and inconsistent with observed richness patterns. Instead, the richness gradient is explained by limited time for speciation in marine habitats, since all extant marine clades are relatively young. Paleontological data show that older marine invasions have consistently ended in extinction. Simulations show that marine extinctions help drive the pattern of young, depauperate marine clades. This role for extinction is not discernible from molecular phylogenies alone, and not predicted by most previously hypothesised explanations for this gradient. Our results have important implications for the marine-terrestrial biodiversity gradient, and studies of biodiversity gradients in general.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0088, USA.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0088, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Letter

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28589539

Citation

Miller, Elizabeth C., and John J. Wiens. "Extinction and Time Help Drive the Marine-terrestrial Biodiversity Gradient: Is the Ocean a Deathtrap?" Ecology Letters, vol. 20, no. 7, 2017, pp. 911-921.
Miller EC, Wiens JJ. Extinction and time help drive the marine-terrestrial biodiversity gradient: is the ocean a deathtrap? Ecol Lett. 2017;20(7):911-921.
Miller, E. C., & Wiens, J. J. (2017). Extinction and time help drive the marine-terrestrial biodiversity gradient: is the ocean a deathtrap? Ecology Letters, 20(7), 911-921. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12783
Miller EC, Wiens JJ. Extinction and Time Help Drive the Marine-terrestrial Biodiversity Gradient: Is the Ocean a Deathtrap. Ecol Lett. 2017;20(7):911-921. PubMed PMID: 28589539.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Extinction and time help drive the marine-terrestrial biodiversity gradient: is the ocean a deathtrap? AU - Miller,Elizabeth C, AU - Wiens,John J, Y1 - 2017/06/06/ PY - 2017/01/30/received PY - 2017/03/11/revised PY - 2017/04/23/accepted PY - 2017/6/8/pubmed PY - 2017/12/9/medline PY - 2017/6/8/entrez KW - Amniotes KW - diversification rates KW - extinction KW - marine-terrestrial gradient KW - species richness KW - time-for-speciation SP - 911 EP - 921 JF - Ecology letters JO - Ecol Lett VL - 20 IS - 7 N2 - The marine-terrestrial richness gradient is among Earth's most dramatic biodiversity patterns, but its causes remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse detailed phylogenies of amniote clades, paleontological data and simulations to reveal the mechanisms underlying low marine richness, emphasising speciation, extinction and colonisation. We show that differences in diversification rates (speciation minus extinction) between habitats are often weak and inconsistent with observed richness patterns. Instead, the richness gradient is explained by limited time for speciation in marine habitats, since all extant marine clades are relatively young. Paleontological data show that older marine invasions have consistently ended in extinction. Simulations show that marine extinctions help drive the pattern of young, depauperate marine clades. This role for extinction is not discernible from molecular phylogenies alone, and not predicted by most previously hypothesised explanations for this gradient. Our results have important implications for the marine-terrestrial biodiversity gradient, and studies of biodiversity gradients in general. SN - 1461-0248 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28589539/Extinction_and_time_help_drive_the_marine_terrestrial_biodiversity_gradient:_is_the_ocean_a_deathtrap L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12783 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -