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Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of methanolic extracts of four ethnomedicinal plant species from Punjab, Pakistan.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jun 08; 17(1):302.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The plant species Aristolochia indica (AI), Melilotus indicus (MI), Tribulus terrestris (TT) and Cuscuta pedicellata (CP) are widely used in folk medicine in the villages around Chowk Azam, South Punjab, Pakistan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, phytochemical composition, and the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potential of the four medicinal plants listed above. For CP stem, this study represents (to the best of our knowledge) the first time phytochemicals have been identified and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential determined.

METHODS

Phytochemicals were analyzed through chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant activities (DPPH and H2O2) were also determined through spectrophotometric methods. Extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential via the agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. Antifungal activities were tested using the agar tube dilution method against three species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae. The cytotoxic potential of the plant extracts was checked using the brine shrimp assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the selected plant extracts was evaluated using albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory assays.

RESULTS

Of all the methanolic extracts tested, those from CP (stem) and TTF (T. terrestris fruit) had the highest phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents (497±4 mg GAE/g, 385±8 mg QE/g and 139±4 mg QE/g; 426±5 mg GAE/g, 371±8 mg QE/g and 138±6 mg QE/g, respectively) and also exhibited strong antioxidant potential in scavenging DPPH and hydrogen peroxide (IC50 values; 20±1 and 18±0.7 μg/mL; 92±2 and 26±2 μg/mL, respectively). CP, TTF and TTL (T. terrestris leaf) extracts substantially inhibited the growth of the bacteria A. baumannii, S. aureus, and K. pneumonia and also exhibited the highest antifungal potential. The ranking of the plant extracts for cytotoxicity was TTF > TTL > AI > CP > MI, while the ranking for in vitro anti-inflammatory potential at a concentration of 200 μg/mL of the selected plant extracts was CP > TTL, TTF > AI > MI. The lowest IC50 (28 μg/mL) observed in the albumin denaturation assay was for CP. Positive correlations were observed between total phenolics, antioxidants, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of the selected plant extracts, indicating a significant contribution of phenolic compounds in the plant extracts to these activities.

CONCLUSIONS

This study revealed the strong antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potential of the plant species CP and TT used in folk medicine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. rabia.naz@comsats.edu.pk.Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.Department of Sociology and Anthropology, PMAS University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Isamabad, Pakistan.Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Isamabad, Pakistan.Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.Plant Breeding Institute, Sydney Institute of Agriculture, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28595608

Citation

Naz, Rabia, et al. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Anti-inflammatory Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Four Ethnomedicinal Plant Species From Punjab, Pakistan." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 2017, p. 302.
Naz R, Ayub H, Nawaz S, et al. Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of methanolic extracts of four ethnomedicinal plant species from Punjab, Pakistan. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):302.
Naz, R., Ayub, H., Nawaz, S., Islam, Z. U., Yasmin, T., Bano, A., Wakeel, A., Zia, S., & Roberts, T. H. (2017). Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of methanolic extracts of four ethnomedicinal plant species from Punjab, Pakistan. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 302. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1815-z
Naz R, et al. Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Anti-inflammatory Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Four Ethnomedicinal Plant Species From Punjab, Pakistan. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jun 8;17(1):302. PubMed PMID: 28595608.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of methanolic extracts of four ethnomedicinal plant species from Punjab, Pakistan. AU - Naz,Rabia, AU - Ayub,Hafsa, AU - Nawaz,Sajid, AU - Islam,Zia Ul, AU - Yasmin,Tayyaba, AU - Bano,Asghari, AU - Wakeel,Abdul, AU - Zia,Saqib, AU - Roberts,Thomas H, Y1 - 2017/06/08/ PY - 2016/11/08/received PY - 2017/05/31/accepted PY - 2017/6/10/entrez PY - 2017/6/10/pubmed PY - 2017/8/22/medline KW - Anti-inflammatory KW - Anti-proteinase KW - Antimicrobials KW - Antioxidants KW - Chowk Azam KW - Cytotoxicity KW - Phytochemicals KW - Plant extracts KW - TLC SP - 302 EP - 302 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The plant species Aristolochia indica (AI), Melilotus indicus (MI), Tribulus terrestris (TT) and Cuscuta pedicellata (CP) are widely used in folk medicine in the villages around Chowk Azam, South Punjab, Pakistan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, phytochemical composition, and the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potential of the four medicinal plants listed above. For CP stem, this study represents (to the best of our knowledge) the first time phytochemicals have been identified and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential determined. METHODS: Phytochemicals were analyzed through chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant activities (DPPH and H2O2) were also determined through spectrophotometric methods. Extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential via the agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. Antifungal activities were tested using the agar tube dilution method against three species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae. The cytotoxic potential of the plant extracts was checked using the brine shrimp assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the selected plant extracts was evaluated using albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory assays. RESULTS: Of all the methanolic extracts tested, those from CP (stem) and TTF (T. terrestris fruit) had the highest phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents (497±4 mg GAE/g, 385±8 mg QE/g and 139±4 mg QE/g; 426±5 mg GAE/g, 371±8 mg QE/g and 138±6 mg QE/g, respectively) and also exhibited strong antioxidant potential in scavenging DPPH and hydrogen peroxide (IC50 values; 20±1 and 18±0.7 μg/mL; 92±2 and 26±2 μg/mL, respectively). CP, TTF and TTL (T. terrestris leaf) extracts substantially inhibited the growth of the bacteria A. baumannii, S. aureus, and K. pneumonia and also exhibited the highest antifungal potential. The ranking of the plant extracts for cytotoxicity was TTF > TTL > AI > CP > MI, while the ranking for in vitro anti-inflammatory potential at a concentration of 200 μg/mL of the selected plant extracts was CP > TTL, TTF > AI > MI. The lowest IC50 (28 μg/mL) observed in the albumin denaturation assay was for CP. Positive correlations were observed between total phenolics, antioxidants, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of the selected plant extracts, indicating a significant contribution of phenolic compounds in the plant extracts to these activities. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the strong antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potential of the plant species CP and TT used in folk medicine. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28595608/Antimicrobial_activity_toxicity_and_anti_inflammatory_potential_of_methanolic_extracts_of_four_ethnomedicinal_plant_species_from_Punjab_Pakistan_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-017-1815-z DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -