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Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2018 Oct - Dec; 11(4):192-198.RP

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied.

RESULTS

Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Enfermería, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España.Unidad de Medicina Legal y Toxicología, Departamento de Fisiología y Farmacología, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España. Electronic address: ana.santurtun@unican.es.Unidad de Medicina Legal y Toxicología, Departamento de Fisiología y Farmacología, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng spa

PubMed ID

28596127

Citation

Santurtún, Maite, et al. "Does the Environment Affect Suicide Rates in Spain? a Spatiotemporal Analysis." Revista De Psiquiatria Y Salud Mental, vol. 11, no. 4, 2018, pp. 192-198.
Santurtún M, Santurtún A, Zarrabeitia MT. Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2018;11(4):192-198.
Santurtún, M., Santurtún, A., & Zarrabeitia, M. T. (2018). Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis. Revista De Psiquiatria Y Salud Mental, 11(4), 192-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2017.05.001
Santurtún M, Santurtún A, Zarrabeitia MT. Does the Environment Affect Suicide Rates in Spain? a Spatiotemporal Analysis. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2018;11(4):192-198. PubMed PMID: 28596127.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis. AU - Santurtún,Maite, AU - Santurtún,Ana, AU - Zarrabeitia,María T, Y1 - 2017/06/07/ PY - 2016/08/07/received PY - 2017/04/28/revised PY - 2017/05/03/accepted PY - 2017/6/10/pubmed PY - 2019/2/7/medline PY - 2017/6/10/entrez KW - Estacionalidad KW - Gross domestic product KW - Mortalidad KW - Mortality KW - Producto interior bruto KW - Seasonality KW - Suicide KW - Suicidio KW - Tendencia KW - Trend SP - 192 EP - 198 JF - Revista de psiquiatria y salud mental JO - Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment VL - 11 IS - 4 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies. SN - 1989-4600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28596127/Does_the_environment_affect_suicide_rates_in_Spain_A_spatiotemporal_analysis_ L2 - https://www.elsevier.es/en/linksolver/pdf/pii/S1888-9891(17)30070-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -