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Precooling With Crushed Ice: As Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2018; 13(2):228-234IJ

Abstract

This study compared the effects of precooling (ice ingestion) and heat-acclimation training on cycling time-trial (CTT) performance in the heat. Fifteen male cyclists/triathletes completed two 800-kJ CTTs in the heat, with a 12-d training program in between. Initially, all participants consumed 7 g/kg of water (22°C) in 30 min before completing an 800-kJ CTT in hot, humid conditions (pre-CTT) (35°C, 50% relative humidity [RH]). Participants were then split into 2 groups, with the precooling group (n = 7) training in thermoneutral conditions and then undergoing precooling with ice ingestion (7 g/kg, 1°C) prior to the final CTT (post-CTT) and the heat-acclimation group (n = 8) training in hot conditions (35°C, 50% RH) and consuming water (7 g/kg) prior to post-CTT. After training in both conditions, improvement in CTT time was deemed a likely positive benefit (precooling -166 ± 133 s, heat acclimation -105 ± 62 s), with this result being similar between conditions (d = 0.22, -0.68-1.08 90% confidence interval [CI]). Core temperature for post-CTT was lower in precooling than in heat acclimation from 20 min into the precooling period until the 100-kJ mark of the CTT (d > 0.98). Sweat onset occurred later in precooling (250 ± 100 s) than in heat acclimation (180 ± 80 s) for post-CTT (d = 0.65, -0.30-1.50 90% CI). Thermal sensation was lower at the end of the precooling period prior to post-CTT for the precooling trial than with heat acclimation (d = 1.24, 0.90-1.58 90% CI). Precooling with ice ingestion offers an alternative method of improving endurance-cycling performance in hot conditions if heat acclimation cannot be attained.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28605253

Citation

Zimmermann, Matthew, et al. "Precooling With Crushed Ice: as Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat." International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 13, no. 2, 2018, pp. 228-234.
Zimmermann M, Landers G, Wallman K, et al. Precooling With Crushed Ice: As Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(2):228-234.
Zimmermann, M., Landers, G., Wallman, K., & Kent, G. (2018). Precooling With Crushed Ice: As Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(2), pp. 228-234. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0766.
Zimmermann M, et al. Precooling With Crushed Ice: as Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018 Feb 1;13(2):228-234. PubMed PMID: 28605253.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Precooling With Crushed Ice: As Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat. AU - Zimmermann,Matthew, AU - Landers,Grant, AU - Wallman,Karen, AU - Kent,Georgina, Y1 - 2018/02/14/ PY - 2017/6/13/pubmed PY - 2018/5/4/medline PY - 2017/6/13/entrez KW - endurance KW - hot environment KW - ice ingestion KW - oxygen consumption KW - sweating SP - 228 EP - 234 JF - International journal of sports physiology and performance JO - Int J Sports Physiol Perform VL - 13 IS - 2 N2 - This study compared the effects of precooling (ice ingestion) and heat-acclimation training on cycling time-trial (CTT) performance in the heat. Fifteen male cyclists/triathletes completed two 800-kJ CTTs in the heat, with a 12-d training program in between. Initially, all participants consumed 7 g/kg of water (22°C) in 30 min before completing an 800-kJ CTT in hot, humid conditions (pre-CTT) (35°C, 50% relative humidity [RH]). Participants were then split into 2 groups, with the precooling group (n = 7) training in thermoneutral conditions and then undergoing precooling with ice ingestion (7 g/kg, 1°C) prior to the final CTT (post-CTT) and the heat-acclimation group (n = 8) training in hot conditions (35°C, 50% RH) and consuming water (7 g/kg) prior to post-CTT. After training in both conditions, improvement in CTT time was deemed a likely positive benefit (precooling -166 ± 133 s, heat acclimation -105 ± 62 s), with this result being similar between conditions (d = 0.22, -0.68-1.08 90% confidence interval [CI]). Core temperature for post-CTT was lower in precooling than in heat acclimation from 20 min into the precooling period until the 100-kJ mark of the CTT (d > 0.98). Sweat onset occurred later in precooling (250 ± 100 s) than in heat acclimation (180 ± 80 s) for post-CTT (d = 0.65, -0.30-1.50 90% CI). Thermal sensation was lower at the end of the precooling period prior to post-CTT for the precooling trial than with heat acclimation (d = 1.24, 0.90-1.58 90% CI). Precooling with ice ingestion offers an alternative method of improving endurance-cycling performance in hot conditions if heat acclimation cannot be attained. SN - 1555-0273 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28605253/Precooling_With_Crushed_Ice:_As_Effective_as_Heat_Acclimation_at_Improving_Cycling_Time_Trial_Performance_in_the_Heat_ L2 - https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0766 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -