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Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women.
Diabetes Care 2017; 40(8):1041-1049DC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (≥2 servings/week).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected.

RESULTS

During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. After multivariate adjustment including red meat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend <0.05). After multivariate adjustment including total red meat intake, a higher frequency of broiling, barbequing, and roasting red meats was each independently associated with a higher T2D risk. When comparing ≥2 times/week with <1 time/month, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI of T2D were 1.29 (1.19, 1.40; P trend <0.001) for broiling, 1.23 (1.11, 1.38; P trend <0.001) for barbequing, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23; P trend = 0.14) for roasting. In contrast, the frequency of stewing/boiling red meats was not associated with T2D risk, and an inverse association was observed for pan-frying frequency and T2D risk. The results remained similar after cooking methods were further mutually adjusted.

CONCLUSIONS

Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA qisun@hsph.harvard.edu. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28611054

Citation

Liu, Gang, et al. "Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: a Prospective Study of U.S. Women." Diabetes Care, vol. 40, no. 8, 2017, pp. 1041-1049.
Liu G, Zong G, Hu FB, et al. Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(8):1041-1049.
Liu, G., Zong, G., Hu, F. B., Willett, W. C., Eisenberg, D. M., & Sun, Q. (2017). Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women. Diabetes Care, 40(8), pp. 1041-1049. doi:10.2337/dc17-0204.
Liu G, et al. Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: a Prospective Study of U.S. Women. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(8):1041-1049. PubMed PMID: 28611054.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women. AU - Liu,Gang, AU - Zong,Geng, AU - Hu,Frank B, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Eisenberg,David M, AU - Sun,Qi, Y1 - 2017/06/13/ PY - 2017/01/27/received PY - 2017/05/06/accepted PY - 2017/6/15/pubmed PY - 2018/1/31/medline PY - 2017/6/15/entrez SP - 1041 EP - 1049 JF - Diabetes care JO - Diabetes Care VL - 40 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (≥2 servings/week). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected. RESULTS: During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. After multivariate adjustment including red meat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend <0.05). After multivariate adjustment including total red meat intake, a higher frequency of broiling, barbequing, and roasting red meats was each independently associated with a higher T2D risk. When comparing ≥2 times/week with <1 time/month, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI of T2D were 1.29 (1.19, 1.40; P trend <0.001) for broiling, 1.23 (1.11, 1.38; P trend <0.001) for barbequing, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23; P trend = 0.14) for roasting. In contrast, the frequency of stewing/boiling red meats was not associated with T2D risk, and an inverse association was observed for pan-frying frequency and T2D risk. The results remained similar after cooking methods were further mutually adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters. SN - 1935-5548 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28611054/Cooking_Methods_for_Red_Meats_and_Risk_of_Type_2_Diabetes:_A_Prospective_Study_of_U_S__Women_ L2 - http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=28611054 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -