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Effects of the Adulteration Technique on the Near-Infrared Detection of Melamine in Milk Powder.
J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jul 19; 65(28):5799-5809.JA

Abstract

The United States Pharmacopeial Convention has led an international collaborative project to develop a toolbox of screening methods and reference standards for the detection of milk powder adulteration. During the development of adulterated milk powder reference standards, blending methods used to combine melamine and milk had unanticipated strong effects on the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of melamine. The prominent absorbance band at 1468 nm of melamine was retained when it was dry-blended with skim milk powder but disappeared in wet-blended mixtures, where spray-dried milk powder samples were prepared from solution. Analyses using polarized light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry indicated that wet blending promoted reversible and early Maillard reactions with lactose that are responsible for differences in melamine NIR spectra between wet- and dry-blended samples. Targeted detection estimates based solely on dry-blended reference standards are likely to overestimate NIR detection capabilities in wet-blended samples as a result of previously overlooked matrix effects arising from changes in melamine hydrogen-bonding status, covalent complexation with lactose, and the lower but more homogeneous melamine local concentration distribution produced in wet-blended samples. Techniques used to incorporate potential adulterants can determine the suitability of milk reference standards for use with rapid detection methods.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Research and Development, Abbott Nutrition Division, Abbott Laboratories , 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio 43219, United States.Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.United States Pharmacopeial Convention , 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland 20852-1790, United States.General Mills, Incorporated , 330 University Avenue Southeast, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, United States.Teagasc Food Research Centre , Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland.Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) , 5001 Campus Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.Division of Food Processing Science and Technology, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) , 6502 South Archer Road, Bedford Park, Illinois 60501, United States.Mondelez Global LLC , 3 Parkway North, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, United States.Fonterra Research and Development Centre , Dairy Farm Road, Palmerston North 442, New Zealand.METER Group, Incorporated , 2365 Northeast Hopkins Court, Pullman, Washington 99163, United States.Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture , 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, United States.The Hershey Company , Technical Center, 1025 Reese Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, United States.IonSense, Incorporated , 999 Broadway, Suite 404, Saugus, Massachusetts 01915, United States.Bruker Optics, Incorporated USA , 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, United States.Mondelez Global LLC , 3 Parkway North, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, United States.Mondelez Global LLC , 3 Parkway North, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, United States.Research and Development, Abbott Nutrition Division, Abbott Laboratories , 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio 43219, United States.Research and Development Network, Quality Assurance, Nestlé Purina Petcare , 800 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63102, United States.Dairy Foods Research and Development, Land O'Lakes, Incorporated , Arden Hills, Minnesota 55112, United States.Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture , 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, United States.Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture , 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, United States.United States Pharmacopeial Convention , 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland 20852-1790, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28617599

Citation

Scholl, Peter F., et al. "Effects of the Adulteration Technique On the Near-Infrared Detection of Melamine in Milk Powder." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 28, 2017, pp. 5799-5809.
Scholl PF, Bergana MM, Yakes BJ, et al. Effects of the Adulteration Technique on the Near-Infrared Detection of Melamine in Milk Powder. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65(28):5799-5809.
Scholl, P. F., Bergana, M. M., Yakes, B. J., Xie, Z., Zbylut, S., Downey, G., Mossoba, M., Jablonski, J., Magaletta, R., Holroyd, S. E., Buehler, M., Qin, J., Hurst, W., LaPointe, J. H., Roberts, D., Zrybko, C., Mackey, A., Holton, J. D., Israelson, G. A., ... Moore, J. C. (2017). Effects of the Adulteration Technique on the Near-Infrared Detection of Melamine in Milk Powder. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(28), 5799-5809. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02083
Scholl PF, et al. Effects of the Adulteration Technique On the Near-Infrared Detection of Melamine in Milk Powder. J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jul 19;65(28):5799-5809. PubMed PMID: 28617599.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of the Adulteration Technique on the Near-Infrared Detection of Melamine in Milk Powder. AU - Scholl,Peter F, AU - Bergana,Marti Mamula, AU - Yakes,Betsy Jean, AU - Xie,Zhuohong, AU - Zbylut,Steven, AU - Downey,Gerard, AU - Mossoba,Magdi, AU - Jablonski,Joseph, AU - Magaletta,Robert, AU - Holroyd,Stephen E, AU - Buehler,Martin, AU - Qin,Jianwei, AU - Hurst,William, AU - LaPointe,Joseph H, AU - Roberts,Dean, AU - Zrybko,Carol, AU - Mackey,Andrew, AU - Holton,Jason D, AU - Israelson,Greg A, AU - Payne,Anitra, AU - Kim,Moon S, AU - Chao,Kuanglin, AU - Moore,Jeffrey C, Y1 - 2017/07/06/ PY - 2017/6/16/pubmed PY - 2017/7/29/medline PY - 2017/6/16/entrez KW - DART−FTMS KW - FT-NIR KW - Maillard reaction KW - Raman spectroscopy KW - polarized light microscopy KW - skim milk powder SP - 5799 EP - 5809 JF - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry JO - J Agric Food Chem VL - 65 IS - 28 N2 - The United States Pharmacopeial Convention has led an international collaborative project to develop a toolbox of screening methods and reference standards for the detection of milk powder adulteration. During the development of adulterated milk powder reference standards, blending methods used to combine melamine and milk had unanticipated strong effects on the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of melamine. The prominent absorbance band at 1468 nm of melamine was retained when it was dry-blended with skim milk powder but disappeared in wet-blended mixtures, where spray-dried milk powder samples were prepared from solution. Analyses using polarized light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry indicated that wet blending promoted reversible and early Maillard reactions with lactose that are responsible for differences in melamine NIR spectra between wet- and dry-blended samples. Targeted detection estimates based solely on dry-blended reference standards are likely to overestimate NIR detection capabilities in wet-blended samples as a result of previously overlooked matrix effects arising from changes in melamine hydrogen-bonding status, covalent complexation with lactose, and the lower but more homogeneous melamine local concentration distribution produced in wet-blended samples. Techniques used to incorporate potential adulterants can determine the suitability of milk reference standards for use with rapid detection methods. SN - 1520-5118 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28617599/Effects_of_the_Adulteration_Technique_on_the_Near_Infrared_Detection_of_Melamine_in_Milk_Powder_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02083 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -