Effect of dietary (n--3) fatty acids on platelet function and lipid metabolism in rats.Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Jul 31; 835(3):491-500.BB
Six groups of rats were fed diets containing 40% (by weight) lipids, mostly as saturated fatty acids (from 78 to 90%), with a basic amount of linoleic acid (18:2) (1.9%). In four groups, 5% of the saturated fats were substituted with an oil (vegetable: corn, rapeseed; or fish: cod liver, maxepa) and in one group 0.6% of the saturated fats was replaced by eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester. The diets supplied different amounts of 18:2 (1.9 to 10%), 18:3 (0.2 to 1.2%), 20:5 (n--3) (eicosapentaenoic acid) (0 to 1.3%) and 22:6(n--3) (0 to 1.6%). After 3-8 months on diets, platelet aggregation, plasma and platelet cholesterol, fatty acids and incorporation of [14C]acetate and [14C]arachidonate into platelet lipids were investigated. The three diets supplying eicosapentaenoic acid (1.3%) induced an approximately 80-fold increase in this fatty acid in plasma and platelet phospholipids, mainly at the expense of arachidonic acid. This was associated with an increase of the incorporation of arachidonic acid into platelet PE and PS. The incorporation of acetate in the (n--3) fatty-acid-fed animals was markedly increased into 22:5 and 22:6(n--3) at the expense of 22:4(n--6). Platelet aggregation induced by ADP was similar in the six groups. The response to thrombin was lower in animals fed corn and maxepa oils. Collagen aggregation tended to be lower in the fish-oil groups. Platelet aggregation to collagen was significantly negatively correlated to the level of eicosapentaenoic acid in platelet phospholipids, while the aggregation to thrombin was related to the level of 20:3(n--9). In the present study in rat, the (n--3) fatty acids added in small amounts to a saturated fat diet over a period of several months induced drastic changes in platelet lipid metabolism and composition without comparable effects on platelet behaviour.