Effect of chronic arsenic exposure under environmental conditions on bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymatic defenses in wild trout Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei).Ecotoxicology. 2017 Sep; 26(7):930-941.E
The present study evaluates the relation between chronic arsenic (As) exposure in the natural distribution area of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta), oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defenses. Two rivers of the same watershed were evaluated to highlight the correlation between As accumulation and the resulting stress: (i) the Presa River, which has high chronic As levels (2281.66 µg/L) due to past mining activity, and (ii) the Bravona River (control river). This metalloid was measured in main fish tissues (gills, kidney, liver, muscle, gonads and fins) and water. As organotropism in S. trutta was kidney > liver > gill > fin > gonad > muscle. The HepatoSomatic Index (HSI) and somatic condition (CF) were used to compare fish population conditions from both sites. Arsenic can be absorbed by the gills and can induce oxidative stress and disturb antioxidant defenses. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress response by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymatic defenses (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)), in the main tissues of control and exposed trout. The highest MDA content was found in the kidney and liver of exposed trout. SOD and CAT activities in exposed livers and kidneys were considerably increased while a significant rise of GPx activity was observed only in the liver. GST activity was found to be significantly induced in the liver of exposed trout. The results demonstrate that arsenic bioaccumulation can induce lipid peroxidation and substantial modifications in antioxidant enzymatic defenses in main wild trout tissues.