Electro-clinical criteria and surgical outcome: Is there a difference between mesial and lesional temporal lobe epilepsy?Acta Neurol Scand 2017; 136(6):708-714AN
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome (MTLE) with specific electrophysiological and clinical characteristics and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) on MRI is considered the prototype of a syndrome with good surgical prognosis. Ictal onset zones in MTLE have been found to extend outside the hippocampus and neocortical seizures often involve mesial structures. It can, thus, be questioned whether MTLE with HS is different from lesional temporal epilepsies with respect to electro-clinical characteristics and surgical prognosis. We assessed whether MTLE with HS is distinguishable from lesional TLE and which criteria determine surgical outcome.
People in a retrospective cohort of 389 individuals with MRI abnormalities who underwent temporal lobectomy, were divided into "HS only" or "lesional" TLEs. Twenty-six presented with dual pathology and were excluded from further analysis. We compared surgical outcome and electro-clinical characteristics.
Over half (61%) had "HS only." Four electro-clinical characteristics (age at epilepsy onset, febrile seizures, memory dysfunction and contralateral dystonic posturing) distinguished "HS only" from "lesional" TLE, but there was considerable overlap. Seizure freedom 2 years after surgery (Engel class 1) was similar: 67% ("HS only") vs 69% ("lesional" TLE). Neither presence of HS nor electro-clinical criteria was associated with surgical outcome.
Despite small differences in electrophysiological and clinical characteristics between MTLE with HS and lesional TLE, surgical outcomes are similar, indicating that aetiology seems irrelevant in the referral for temporal surgery.