Mikania glomerata Sprengel extract and its major compound ent-kaurenoic acid display activity against bacteria present in endodontic infections.Anaerobe. 2017 10; 47:201-208.A
The search for new, effective and safe antimicrobial compounds from plant sources has continued to play an important role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Such compounds can be used to help to eradicate microorganisms from the root canal system, preventing/healing periapical diseases. Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), commonly known as "guaco," is a native climbing plant from Brazil that displays a wide range of pharmacological properties. Many of its activities have been attributed to its phytochemical composition, which is mainly composed of diterpenes, such as ent-kaurenoic acid (KA). The present study evaluated the potential activity of an ent-kaurenoic-rich (KA) extract from Mikania glomerata (i.e. Mikania glomerata extract/MGE) and its major compound KA against bacteria that can cause endodontic infections. Time-kill assays were conducted and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), anti-biofilm activity, and synergistic antimicrobial activity of MGE and KA were determined. The MGE exhibited MIC and MBC values, which ranged from 6.25 to 100 μg/mL and 12.5 to 200 μg/mL respectively. The MIC and MBC results obtained for the KA, ranged from 3.12 to 100 μg/mL and 3.12 to 200 μg/mL respectively. Time-kill and anti-biofilm activity assays conducted for KA at concentrations between 3.12 and 12.5 μg/mL exhibited bactericidal activity between 6 and 72 h of incubation and 50% inhibition of biofilm formation for Porphyromonas gingivalis (clinical isolate), Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919), Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563), P. melaninogenica (ATCC 25845), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43717). For synergistic antimicrobial activity, KA combined with chlorhexidine dichlorohydrate (CHD) had an additive effect with increased efficacy against P. gingivalis (clinical isolate) compared to CHD alone. It was concluded that M. glomerata extract and its major compound ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) showed in vitro antibacterial activity, the latter being a potential biofilm inhibitory agent. They may play important roles in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against bacteria present in endodontic infections.