Functional kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron as a Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of Direct Black G.Chemosphere. 2017 Oct; 184:664-672.C
Kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (K-nZVI) is synthesized and applied as the Fenton-like oxidation catalyst to degrade a model azo dye, Direct Black G (DBG). The characterization of K-nZVI by the high resolution transmission electronmicroscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Diffraction Spectrum (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that kaolin as a support material not only reduces the aggregation of zero-valent iron (nZVI) but also facilitates the Fenton-like oxidation by increasing the local concentration of DBG in the vicinity of nZVI. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models are employed to reveal the adsorption and degradation of the DBG using K-nZVI as the catalyst. A better fit with pseudo second-order model for the adsorption process and equal excellent fits with pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models for the degradation process are observed; the adsorption process is found to be the rate limiting step for overall reactions. The adsorption, evaluated by isotherms and thermodynamic parameters is a spontaneous and endothermic process. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was used to test degraded products in the degradation of DGB by K-nZVI. A removal mechanism based on the adsorption and degradation is proposed, including (i) prompt adsorption of DBG onto the K-nZVI surface, and (ii) oxidation of DBG by hydroxyl radicals at the K-nZVI surface. The application of K-nZVI to treat real wastewater containing azo dyes shows excellent degradation efficiency.