Comparative analysis of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced carbohydrate oxidation changes via TRPV1 between mice and chickens.Biomed Res. 2017; 38(3):149-155.BR
Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is one of the pungent ingredients of wasabi and horseradish but it is not included in hot chili pepper, increased carbohydrate oxidation and reduced postprandial increase of blood glucose via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)in mice. However, the action site of AITC on TRPV1 for increasing carbohydrate oxidation is unclear. Both mammalian and chicken TRPV1 (cTRPV1) are activated by heat and acid, but unlike its mammalian counterpart, cTRPV1 is only faintly activated by capsaicin. This difference is due to the 8 chicken-specific amino acid residues around transmembrane 3, which is the main site of capsaicin-binding in rat TRPV1. Moreover, AITC-induced activation of mouse TRPV1 (mTRPV1) is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin-binding. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of carbohydrate oxidation by AITC in mammals is induced by the binding of AITC to the capsaicin-binding site of TRPV1. In this study, we performed a comparative study using chickens and mice, since chickens are thought to partly lack the capsaicin-binding site of TRPV1. We examined the effects of AITC on the respiratory quotient (RQ), the index of carbohydrate oxidation and fat oxidation, in chickens and mice. Respiratory gas analysis revealed that AITC does not increase the RQ in chickens, and Ca2+ imaging methods and a whole cell-patch clamp analysis showed that AITC does not activate cTRPV1. These results implied that the capsaicin-binding site is an important region for increasing carbohydrate oxidation by AITC administration in animals.