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Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers.
Osteoporos Int. 2017 10; 28(10):2903-2912.OI

Abstract

According to existing literature, bone health in ballet dancers is controversial. We have verified that, compared to controls, young female and male vocational ballet dancers have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at both impact and non-impact sites, whereas female professional ballet dancers have lower BMD only at non-impact sites.

INTRODUCTION

The aims of this study were to (a) assess bone mineral density (BMD) in vocational (VBD) and professional (PBD) ballet dancers and (b) investigate its association with body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), maturation and menarche.

METHODS

The total of 152 VBD (13 ± 2.3 years; 112 girls, 40 boys) and 96 controls (14 ± 2.1 years; 56 girls, 40 boys) and 184 PBD (28 ± 8.5 years; 129 females, 55 males) and 160 controls (27 ± 9.5 years; 110 female, 50 males) were assessed at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), forearm and total body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maturation and menarche were assessed via questionnaires.

RESULTS

VBD revealed lower unadjusted BMD at all anatomical sites compared to controls (p < 0.001); following adjustments for Tanner stage and gynaecological age, female VBD showed similar BMD values at impact sites. However, no factors were found to explain the lower adjusted BMD values in VBD (female and male) at the forearm (non-impact site), nor for the lower adjusted BMD values in male VBD at the FN. Compared to controls, female PBD showed higher unadjusted and adjusted BMD for potential associated factors at the FN (impact site) (p < 0.001) and lower adjusted at the forearm (p < 0.001). Male PBD did not reveal lower BMD than controls at any site.

CONCLUSIONS

Both females and males VBD have lower BMD at impact and non-impact sites compared to control, whereas this is only the case at non-impact site in female PBD. Maturation seems to explain the lower BMD at impact sites in female VBD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, 4200-450, Porto, Portugal. tania_amorim@hotmail.com. Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK. tania_amorim@hotmail.com.Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK. School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK.Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK. National Institute of Dance Medicine and Science, London, UK.Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, 4200-450, Porto, Portugal.i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK. School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.School of Health Technology of Porto, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.School of Health Technology of Porto, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28656365

Citation

Amorim, T, et al. "Bone Mineral Density in Vocational and Professional Ballet Dancers." Osteoporosis International : a Journal Established as Result of Cooperation Between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, vol. 28, no. 10, 2017, pp. 2903-2912.
Amorim T, Koutedakis Y, Nevill A, et al. Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(10):2903-2912.
Amorim, T., Koutedakis, Y., Nevill, A., Wyon, M., Maia, J., Machado, J. C., Marques, F., Metsios, G. S., Flouris, A. D., Adubeiro, N., Nogueira, L., & Dimitriou, L. (2017). Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers. Osteoporosis International : a Journal Established as Result of Cooperation Between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 28(10), 2903-2912. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4130-0
Amorim T, et al. Bone Mineral Density in Vocational and Professional Ballet Dancers. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(10):2903-2912. PubMed PMID: 28656365.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers. AU - Amorim,T, AU - Koutedakis,Y, AU - Nevill,A, AU - Wyon,M, AU - Maia,J, AU - Machado,J C, AU - Marques,F, AU - Metsios,G S, AU - Flouris,A D, AU - Adubeiro,N, AU - Nogueira,L, AU - Dimitriou,L, Y1 - 2017/06/27/ PY - 2016/09/15/received PY - 2017/06/14/accepted PY - 2017/6/29/pubmed PY - 2018/7/26/medline PY - 2017/6/29/entrez KW - Associated factors KW - Ballerinas KW - Bone mass KW - Elite dance KW - Prevalence SP - 2903 EP - 2912 JF - Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA JO - Osteoporos Int VL - 28 IS - 10 N2 - : According to existing literature, bone health in ballet dancers is controversial. We have verified that, compared to controls, young female and male vocational ballet dancers have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at both impact and non-impact sites, whereas female professional ballet dancers have lower BMD only at non-impact sites. INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to (a) assess bone mineral density (BMD) in vocational (VBD) and professional (PBD) ballet dancers and (b) investigate its association with body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), maturation and menarche. METHODS: The total of 152 VBD (13 ± 2.3 years; 112 girls, 40 boys) and 96 controls (14 ± 2.1 years; 56 girls, 40 boys) and 184 PBD (28 ± 8.5 years; 129 females, 55 males) and 160 controls (27 ± 9.5 years; 110 female, 50 males) were assessed at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), forearm and total body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maturation and menarche were assessed via questionnaires. RESULTS: VBD revealed lower unadjusted BMD at all anatomical sites compared to controls (p < 0.001); following adjustments for Tanner stage and gynaecological age, female VBD showed similar BMD values at impact sites. However, no factors were found to explain the lower adjusted BMD values in VBD (female and male) at the forearm (non-impact site), nor for the lower adjusted BMD values in male VBD at the FN. Compared to controls, female PBD showed higher unadjusted and adjusted BMD for potential associated factors at the FN (impact site) (p < 0.001) and lower adjusted at the forearm (p < 0.001). Male PBD did not reveal lower BMD than controls at any site. CONCLUSIONS: Both females and males VBD have lower BMD at impact and non-impact sites compared to control, whereas this is only the case at non-impact site in female PBD. Maturation seems to explain the lower BMD at impact sites in female VBD. SN - 1433-2965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28656365/Bone_mineral_density_in_vocational_and_professional_ballet_dancers_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4130-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -