Association between total globozoospermia and sperm chromatin defects.Andrologia. 2018 Mar; 50(2)A
Globozoospermia is a severe sperm morphological anomaly leading to primary infertility and low fertilisation following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This phenotype is observed in less than 0.1% of infertile men and is determined by small, round-headed spermatozoa with absence of an acrosomal cap, acrosome protease and also cytoskeletal proteins. Failure of oocyte activation is considered as the main cause of fertilisation failure in these individuals post-ICSI. Therefore, artificial oocyte activation (AOA) along with ICSI is commonly implemented. However, based on previous report, fertilisation rate remains low despite implementation of ICSI-AOA. Therefore, other mechanisms like sperm chromatin packaging and DNA fragmentation may account for low fertilisation and development post-ICSI-AOA. Therefore, this study aims to assess and compare the degree of sperm protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation in large population of infertile men with total globozoospermia (30 globozoospermic men presenting with 100% round-headed spermatozoa) with 22 fertile individuals using chromomycin A3 and TUNEL assay respectively. Results clearly show that mean of sperm concentration and percentage of sperm motility were significantly lower, while percentage of sperm abnormal morphology, protamine-deficient and DNA-fragmented spermatozoa were significantly higher in infertile men with globozoospermia compared to fertile men. Therefore, increased sperm DNA damage in globozoospermia is likely related to defective DNA compaction and antioxidant therapy before ICSI-AOA could be recommended as an appropriate option before ICSI-AOA.