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Carbohydrate nutrition and risk of adiposity-related cancers: results from the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2013).
Br J Nutr 2017; 117(11):1603-1614BJ

Abstract

Higher carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index (GI), and glycaemic load (GL) are hypothesised to increase cancer risk through metabolic dysregulation of the glucose-insulin axis and adiposity-related mechanisms, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This prospective cohort study investigates carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of adiposity-related cancers, which represent the most commonly diagnosed preventable cancers in the USA. In exploratory analyses, associations with three site-specific cancers: breast, prostate and colorectal cancers were also examined. The study sample consisted of 3184 adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Dietary data were collected in 1991-1995 using a FFQ along with lifestyle and medical information. From 1991 to 2013, 565 incident adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate and sixty-eight colorectal cancers, were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the role of carbohydrate nutrition in cancer risk. GI and GL were not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers or any of the site-specific cancers. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers combined or prostate and colorectal cancers. However, carbohydrate consumption in the highest v. lowest quintile was associated with 41 % lower breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·59; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·97). High-, medium- and low-GI foods were not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers or prostate and colorectal cancers. In exploratory analyses, low-GI foods, were associated with 49 % lower breast cancer risk (HR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·32, 0·83). In this cohort of Caucasian American adults, associations between carbohydrate nutrition and cancer varied by cancer site. Healthier low-GI carbohydrate foods may prevent adiposity-related cancers among women, but these findings require confirmation in a larger sample.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Medicine,Columbia University Medical Center,51 Audubon Avenue,Suite 501,New York,NY 10032,USA.2Rutgers School of Public Health,Rutgers The State University of New Jersey,683 Hoes Lane West,Piscataway,NJ 08854,USA.2Rutgers School of Public Health,Rutgers The State University of New Jersey,683 Hoes Lane West,Piscataway,NJ 08854,USA.4Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy,Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging,Tufts University,711 Washington Street,Boston,MA 02111,USA.5Department of Population Health,NYU Langone School of Medicine,227 East 30th Street,7th Floor,New York,NY 10016,USA.5Department of Population Health,NYU Langone School of Medicine,227 East 30th Street,7th Floor,New York,NY 10016,USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28660846

Citation

Makarem, Nour, et al. "Carbohydrate Nutrition and Risk of Adiposity-related Cancers: Results From the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991-2013)." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 117, no. 11, 2017, pp. 1603-1614.
Makarem N, Bandera EV, Lin Y, et al. Carbohydrate nutrition and risk of adiposity-related cancers: results from the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2013). Br J Nutr. 2017;117(11):1603-1614.
Makarem, N., Bandera, E. V., Lin, Y., Jacques, P. F., Hayes, R. B., & Parekh, N. (2017). Carbohydrate nutrition and risk of adiposity-related cancers: results from the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2013). The British Journal of Nutrition, 117(11), pp. 1603-1614. doi:10.1017/S0007114517001489.
Makarem N, et al. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Risk of Adiposity-related Cancers: Results From the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991-2013). Br J Nutr. 2017;117(11):1603-1614. PubMed PMID: 28660846.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Carbohydrate nutrition and risk of adiposity-related cancers: results from the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2013). AU - Makarem,Nour, AU - Bandera,Elisa V, AU - Lin,Yong, AU - Jacques,Paul F, AU - Hayes,Richard B, AU - Parekh,Niyati, Y1 - 2017/06/29/ PY - 2017/7/1/pubmed PY - 2017/8/2/medline PY - 2017/6/30/entrez KW - FHS Framingham Heart Study KW - FOS Framingham Offspring KW - GI glycaemic index KW - GL glycaemic load KW - HR hazard ratio KW - WC waist circumference KW - Adiposity-related cancers KW - Carbohydrate intakes KW - Framingham Offspring cohort KW - Glycaemic index KW - Glycaemic load SP - 1603 EP - 1614 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 117 IS - 11 N2 - Higher carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index (GI), and glycaemic load (GL) are hypothesised to increase cancer risk through metabolic dysregulation of the glucose-insulin axis and adiposity-related mechanisms, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This prospective cohort study investigates carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of adiposity-related cancers, which represent the most commonly diagnosed preventable cancers in the USA. In exploratory analyses, associations with three site-specific cancers: breast, prostate and colorectal cancers were also examined. The study sample consisted of 3184 adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Dietary data were collected in 1991-1995 using a FFQ along with lifestyle and medical information. From 1991 to 2013, 565 incident adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate and sixty-eight colorectal cancers, were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the role of carbohydrate nutrition in cancer risk. GI and GL were not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers or any of the site-specific cancers. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers combined or prostate and colorectal cancers. However, carbohydrate consumption in the highest v. lowest quintile was associated with 41 % lower breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·59; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·97). High-, medium- and low-GI foods were not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers or prostate and colorectal cancers. In exploratory analyses, low-GI foods, were associated with 49 % lower breast cancer risk (HR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·32, 0·83). In this cohort of Caucasian American adults, associations between carbohydrate nutrition and cancer varied by cancer site. Healthier low-GI carbohydrate foods may prevent adiposity-related cancers among women, but these findings require confirmation in a larger sample. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28660846/Carbohydrate_nutrition_and_risk_of_adiposity_related_cancers:_results_from_the_Framingham_Offspring_cohort__1991_2013__ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114517001489/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -