Coupling biological assays with diffusive gradients in thin-films technique to study the biological responses of Eisenia fetida to cadmium in soil.J Hazard Mater. 2017 Oct 05; 339:340-346.JH
This work sets out to investigate biological responses of Eisenia fetida to Cd, based on the bioavailable rather than total concentration of Cd, in soils. E. fetida was cultured for 14d in three selected Chinese soils amended with 0.1-40mgkg-1 Cd. Potentially bioavailable concentrations of Cd were measured in soil solution, in extractions using CaCl2 and HAc solutions, and using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT). Antioxidant system responses in E. fetida to Cd were measured as biological endpoints. Biological responses were more highly correlated with Cd concentrations evaluated using bioavailable methods than with total concentrations. Cd concentration measured using DGT and CaCl2 extraction provided the narrowest ranges of lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) values based on biological responses, indicating the potential use of these measurements in management of soil quality and setting soil remediation standards. The LOEC values obtained from 15 field soils contaminated by Cd were similar to those from the three Cd-amended soils and suggested that DGT in particular can be a good tool to predict stress responses of E. fetida to Cd in soils. The study shows the potential of combining biological response and DGT measurements in risk assessment.