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Polintons, virophages and transpovirons: a tangled web linking viruses, transposons and immunity.
Curr Opin Virol. 2017 08; 25:7-15.CO

Abstract

Virophages are satellite DNA viruses that depend for their replication on giant viruses of the family Mimiviridae. An evolutionary relationship exists between the virophages and Polintons, large self-synthesizing transposons that are wide spread in the genomes of diverse eukaryotes. Most of the Polintons encode homologs of major and minor icosahedral virus capsid proteins and accordingly are predicted to form virions. Additionally, metagenome analysis has led to the discovery of an expansive family of Polinton-like viruses (PLV) that are more distantly related to bona fide Polintons and virophages. Another group of giant virus parasites includes small, linear, double-stranded DNA elements called transpovirons. Recent in-depth comparative genomic analysis has yielded evidence of the origin of the PLV and the transpovirons from Polintons. Integration of virophage genomes into genomes of both giant viruses and protists has been demonstrated. Furthermore, in an experimental coinfection system that consisted of a protist host, a giant virus and an associated virophage, the virophage integrated into the host genome and, after activation of its expression by a superinfecting giant virus, served as an agent of adaptive immunity. There is a striking analogy between this mechanism and the CRISPR-Cas system of prokaryotic adaptive immunity. Taken together, these findings show that Polintons, PLV, virophages and transpovirons form a dynamic network of integrating mobile genetic elements that contribute to the cellular antivirus defense and host-virus coevolution.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA. Electronic address: koonin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.Unité Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Electronic address: krupovic@pasteur.fr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28672161

Citation

Koonin, Eugene V., and Mart Krupovic. "Polintons, Virophages and Transpovirons: a Tangled Web Linking Viruses, Transposons and Immunity." Current Opinion in Virology, vol. 25, 2017, pp. 7-15.
Koonin EV, Krupovic M. Polintons, virophages and transpovirons: a tangled web linking viruses, transposons and immunity. Curr Opin Virol. 2017;25:7-15.
Koonin, E. V., & Krupovic, M. (2017). Polintons, virophages and transpovirons: a tangled web linking viruses, transposons and immunity. Current Opinion in Virology, 25, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2017.06.008
Koonin EV, Krupovic M. Polintons, Virophages and Transpovirons: a Tangled Web Linking Viruses, Transposons and Immunity. Curr Opin Virol. 2017;25:7-15. PubMed PMID: 28672161.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Polintons, virophages and transpovirons: a tangled web linking viruses, transposons and immunity. AU - Koonin,Eugene V, AU - Krupovic,Mart, Y1 - 2017/06/30/ PY - 2017/04/20/received PY - 2017/05/30/revised PY - 2017/06/19/accepted PY - 2017/7/4/pubmed PY - 2018/5/17/medline PY - 2017/7/4/entrez SP - 7 EP - 15 JF - Current opinion in virology JO - Curr Opin Virol VL - 25 N2 - Virophages are satellite DNA viruses that depend for their replication on giant viruses of the family Mimiviridae. An evolutionary relationship exists between the virophages and Polintons, large self-synthesizing transposons that are wide spread in the genomes of diverse eukaryotes. Most of the Polintons encode homologs of major and minor icosahedral virus capsid proteins and accordingly are predicted to form virions. Additionally, metagenome analysis has led to the discovery of an expansive family of Polinton-like viruses (PLV) that are more distantly related to bona fide Polintons and virophages. Another group of giant virus parasites includes small, linear, double-stranded DNA elements called transpovirons. Recent in-depth comparative genomic analysis has yielded evidence of the origin of the PLV and the transpovirons from Polintons. Integration of virophage genomes into genomes of both giant viruses and protists has been demonstrated. Furthermore, in an experimental coinfection system that consisted of a protist host, a giant virus and an associated virophage, the virophage integrated into the host genome and, after activation of its expression by a superinfecting giant virus, served as an agent of adaptive immunity. There is a striking analogy between this mechanism and the CRISPR-Cas system of prokaryotic adaptive immunity. Taken together, these findings show that Polintons, PLV, virophages and transpovirons form a dynamic network of integrating mobile genetic elements that contribute to the cellular antivirus defense and host-virus coevolution. SN - 1879-6265 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28672161/Polintons_virophages_and_transpovirons:_a_tangled_web_linking_viruses_transposons_and_immunity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1879-6257(17)30033-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -