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Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial.

Abstract

Background:

There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D.

Objective:

We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial.

Design:

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study.

Results:

Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the vitamin D3 biscuit and the vitamin D3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the vitamin D2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P < 0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P < 0.0001)], the vitamin D2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0002)].

Conclusions:

With the use of a daily dose of vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, vitamin D3 was more effective than vitamin D2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize vitamin D status within the general population. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN23421591.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutritional Sciences, laura.tripkovic@surrey.ac.uk.

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    Department of Nutritional Sciences.

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    Department of Nutritional Sciences.

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    Surrey Clinical Research Centre, and.

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    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School of Biosciences and Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

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    School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, United Kingdom.

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    School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, United Kingdom.

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    Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom.

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    Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom.

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    Department of Nutritional Sciences.

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    Division of Health Sciences, School of Population Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; and.

    ,

    Vitamin D Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

    Department of Nutritional Sciences.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Asia
    Asian Continental Ancestry Group
    Cholecalciferol
    Dietary Supplements
    Double-Blind Method
    Ergocalciferols
    Europe
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Food, Fortified
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Seasons
    United Kingdom
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin D Deficiency
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28679555

    Citation

    Tripkovic, Laura, et al. "Daily Supplementation With 15 Μg Vitamin D2 Compared With Vitamin D3 to Increase Wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D Status in Healthy South Asian and White European Women: a 12-wk Randomized, Placebo-controlled Food-fortification Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 106, no. 2, 2017, pp. 481-490.
    Tripkovic L, Wilson LR, Hart K, et al. Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(2):481-490.
    Tripkovic, L., Wilson, L. R., Hart, K., Johnsen, S., de Lusignan, S., Smith, C. P., ... Lanham-New, S. A. (2017). Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(2), pp. 481-490. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.138693.
    Tripkovic L, et al. Daily Supplementation With 15 Μg Vitamin D2 Compared With Vitamin D3 to Increase Wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D Status in Healthy South Asian and White European Women: a 12-wk Randomized, Placebo-controlled Food-fortification Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(2):481-490. PubMed PMID: 28679555.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. AU - Tripkovic,Laura, AU - Wilson,Louise R, AU - Hart,Kathryn, AU - Johnsen,Sig, AU - de Lusignan,Simon, AU - Smith,Colin P, AU - Bucca,Giselda, AU - Penson,Simon, AU - Chope,Gemma, AU - Elliott,Ruan, AU - Hyppönen,Elina, AU - Berry,Jacqueline L, AU - Lanham-New,Susan A, Y1 - 2017/07/05/ PY - 2016/05/25/received PY - 2017/06/05/accepted PY - 2017/7/7/pubmed PY - 2017/8/17/medline PY - 2017/7/7/entrez KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D KW - South Asian KW - food fortification KW - healthy women KW - randomized controlled trial KW - vitamin D KW - vitamin D2 KW - vitamin D3 KW - white European SP - 481 EP - 490 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 106 IS - 2 N2 - Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D.Objective: We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial.Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study.Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the vitamin D3 biscuit and the vitamin D3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the vitamin D2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P < 0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P < 0.0001)], the vitamin D2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0002)].Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, vitamin D3 was more effective than vitamin D2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize vitamin D status within the general population. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN23421591. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28679555/Daily_supplementation_with_15_μg_vitamin_D2_compared_with_vitamin_D3_to_increase_wintertime_25_hydroxyvitamin_D_status_in_healthy_South_Asian_and_white_European_women:_a_12_wk_randomized_placebo_controlled_food_fortification_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.138693 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -