Ferrous-activated peroxymonosulfate oxidation of antimicrobial agent sulfaquinoxaline and structurally related compounds in aqueous solution: kinetics, products, and transformation pathways.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Aug; 24(24):19535-19545.ES
Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is a coccidiostatic drug widely used in poultry and swine production and has been frequently detected in various environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater, soils, and sediments. In the present study, degradation of SQX by ferrous ion-activated peroxymonosulfate oxidation process (Fe(II)/PMS), a promising in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) technique, was systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that Fe(II)/PMS process appeared to be more efficient for SQX removal relative to Fe(II)/persulfate process (Fe(II)/PS). An optimal Fe(II):PMS molar ratio of 1:1 was found to be necessary for efficient removal of SQX. Increasing the solution pH hampered the degradation of SQX, and no enhancement in SQX degradation was observed when chelating agents S,S'-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and citrate were present. The presence of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), as a representative of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM), could inhibit the degradation of SQX. SQX was more susceptible to Fe(II)/PMS oxidation in comparison to its substructural analog 2-amino-quinoxaline (2-AQ) and other sulfonamides, i.e., sulfapyridine (SPD) and sulfadiazine (SDZ). Transformation products of SQX were enriched by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). On the basis of the TPs identified, detailed reaction pathways for SQX degradation including sulfonamide bond cleavage, SO2 extrusion, and aniline moiety oxidation were proposed. Our contribution may provide some useful information for better understanding the kinetics and mechanisms of SQX degradation by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs).