Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California.
Int J Drug Policy. 2017 09; 47:9-17.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are significantly lower among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego, CA, USA compared with PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, located directly across the border. We investigated associations between cross-border injection drug use (IDU), HIV and HCV seroprevalence and engagement in injecting risk behaviours while on each side of the border.

METHODS

Using baseline interviews and serologic testing data from STAHR II, a longitudinal cohort study of PWID in San Diego, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between recent (past six months) cross-border IDU and HIV and HCV antibody seropositivity, socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and participants' connections to, and perceptions about Mexico. Chi-squared tests and McNemar tests examined associations between cross-border IDU and injecting risk behaviours.

RESULTS

Of the 567 participants (93% U.S.-born, 73% male, median age 45 years), 86 (15%) reported recent cross-border IDU. Cross-border IDU was not associated with HIV (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.37-1.95) or HCV seropositivity (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.62-1.65). Age, identifying as Hispanic or Latino/a, and being concerned about risk of violence when travelling to Mexico were independently associated with decreased odds of recent cross-border IDU. Injecting cocaine at least weekly, having ever lived in Mexico and knowing PWID who reside in Mexico were associated with increased odds of recent cross-border IDU. PWID who reported cross-border IDU were significantly less likely to engage in receptive needle sharing, equipment sharing, and public injection while in Mexico compared with in San Diego (all p<0.001).

CONCLUSION

Prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was similar among PWID who had and had not injected in Mexico, possibly due to practising safer injecting while in Mexico. Research is needed to elucidate contextual factors enabling U.S. PWID to inject safely while in Mexico.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Behaviours and Health Risks Program, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Rd., Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia; School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 99 Commercial Rd., Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia. Electronic address: dhoryniak@ucsd.edu.School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV 89557, USA. Electronic address: karlawagner@unr.edu.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address: rarmenta@ucsd.edu.Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address: jcuevasmota@ucsd.edu.Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address: ehendric@ucsd.edu.Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address: rgarfein@ucsd.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28683432

Citation

Horyniak, Danielle, et al. "Cross-border Injection Drug Use and HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Seropositivity Among People Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, California." The International Journal On Drug Policy, vol. 47, 2017, pp. 9-17.
Horyniak D, Wagner KD, Armenta RF, et al. Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;47:9-17.
Horyniak, D., Wagner, K. D., Armenta, R. F., Cuevas-Mota, J., Hendrickson, E., & Garfein, R. S. (2017). Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California. The International Journal On Drug Policy, 47, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.06.006
Horyniak D, et al. Cross-border Injection Drug Use and HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Seropositivity Among People Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, California. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;47:9-17. PubMed PMID: 28683432.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California. AU - Horyniak,Danielle, AU - Wagner,Karla D, AU - Armenta,Richard F, AU - Cuevas-Mota,Jazmine, AU - Hendrickson,Erik, AU - Garfein,Richard S, Y1 - 2017/07/03/ PY - 2017/03/24/received PY - 2017/06/07/revised PY - 2017/06/13/accepted PY - 2017/7/7/pubmed PY - 2018/5/15/medline PY - 2017/7/7/entrez KW - Border crossing KW - HIV KW - Hepatitis C virus KW - Injection drug use KW - Mexico KW - Risk behaviour SP - 9 EP - 17 JF - The International journal on drug policy JO - Int. J. Drug Policy VL - 47 N2 - BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are significantly lower among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego, CA, USA compared with PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, located directly across the border. We investigated associations between cross-border injection drug use (IDU), HIV and HCV seroprevalence and engagement in injecting risk behaviours while on each side of the border. METHODS: Using baseline interviews and serologic testing data from STAHR II, a longitudinal cohort study of PWID in San Diego, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between recent (past six months) cross-border IDU and HIV and HCV antibody seropositivity, socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and participants' connections to, and perceptions about Mexico. Chi-squared tests and McNemar tests examined associations between cross-border IDU and injecting risk behaviours. RESULTS: Of the 567 participants (93% U.S.-born, 73% male, median age 45 years), 86 (15%) reported recent cross-border IDU. Cross-border IDU was not associated with HIV (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.37-1.95) or HCV seropositivity (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.62-1.65). Age, identifying as Hispanic or Latino/a, and being concerned about risk of violence when travelling to Mexico were independently associated with decreased odds of recent cross-border IDU. Injecting cocaine at least weekly, having ever lived in Mexico and knowing PWID who reside in Mexico were associated with increased odds of recent cross-border IDU. PWID who reported cross-border IDU were significantly less likely to engage in receptive needle sharing, equipment sharing, and public injection while in Mexico compared with in San Diego (all p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was similar among PWID who had and had not injected in Mexico, possibly due to practising safer injecting while in Mexico. Research is needed to elucidate contextual factors enabling U.S. PWID to inject safely while in Mexico. SN - 1873-4758 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28683432/Cross_border_injection_drug_use_and_HIV_and_hepatitis_C_virus_seropositivity_among_people_who_inject_drugs_in_San_Diego_California_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0955-3959(17)30177-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -