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High maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties at preschool age: the Rhea mother-child cohort, Crete, Greece.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Jan; 27(1):79-88.EC

Abstract

Animal studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may affect fetal brain growth. However, human studies are scarce with conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with multiple neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years of age. We included 487 mother-child pairs from the prospective pregnancy cohort, "Rhea" in Crete, Greece. Maternal serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured at the first prenatal visit (13 ± 2.4 weeks). Cognitive functions at 4 years were assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by means of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Children of women in the high 25(OH) D tertile (>50.7 nmol/l) had 37% decreased number of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (IRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39, 0.99, p trend = 0.05) and 40% decreased number of total ADHD-like symptoms (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37, 0.95, p trend = 0.03) at 4 years of age, compared to children of women in the low 25(OH) D tertile (<38.4 nmol/l), after adjustment for several confounders. Similar associations were found with the hyperactivity/inattention score of the SDQ questionnaire. Children of mothers with high 25(OH) D levels had also fewer total behavioral difficulties (beta-coeff: -1.25, 95% CI -2.32, -0.19) and externalizing symptoms (beta-coeff: -0.87, 95% CI -1.58, -0.15) at preschool age. The observed associations were stronger in girls than in boys (p for interaction < 0.1). No association was observed between maternal 25(OH) D concentrations and cognitive function in preschoolers. Our results suggest that high maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties, especially ADHD-like symptoms at preschool age.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. darvas72@yahoo.gr. Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. darvas72@yahoo.gr.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry-Biochemistry, University Hospital of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain. IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28685401

Citation

Daraki, Vasiliki, et al. "High Maternal Vitamin D Levels in Early Pregnancy May Protect Against Behavioral Difficulties at Preschool Age: the Rhea Mother-child Cohort, Crete, Greece." European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 1, 2018, pp. 79-88.
Daraki V, Roumeliotaki T, Koutra K, et al. High maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties at preschool age: the Rhea mother-child cohort, Crete, Greece. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018;27(1):79-88.
Daraki, V., Roumeliotaki, T., Koutra, K., Chalkiadaki, G., Katrinaki, M., Kyriklaki, A., Kampouri, M., Margetaki, K., Vafeiadi, M., Papavasiliou, S., Kogevinas, M., & Chatzi, L. (2018). High maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties at preschool age: the Rhea mother-child cohort, Crete, Greece. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(1), 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-1023-x
Daraki V, et al. High Maternal Vitamin D Levels in Early Pregnancy May Protect Against Behavioral Difficulties at Preschool Age: the Rhea Mother-child Cohort, Crete, Greece. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018;27(1):79-88. PubMed PMID: 28685401.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties at preschool age: the Rhea mother-child cohort, Crete, Greece. AU - Daraki,Vasiliki, AU - Roumeliotaki,Theano, AU - Koutra,Katerina, AU - Chalkiadaki,Georgia, AU - Katrinaki,Marianna, AU - Kyriklaki,Andriani, AU - Kampouri,Mariza, AU - Margetaki,Katerina, AU - Vafeiadi,Marina, AU - Papavasiliou,Stathis, AU - Kogevinas,Manolis, AU - Chatzi,Leda, Y1 - 2017/07/06/ PY - 2017/03/19/received PY - 2017/06/29/accepted PY - 2017/7/8/pubmed PY - 2018/5/3/medline PY - 2017/7/8/entrez KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D KW - ADHD KW - Behavior problems KW - Cognition KW - Pregnancy KW - Preschool children SP - 79 EP - 88 JF - European child & adolescent psychiatry JO - Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry VL - 27 IS - 1 N2 - Animal studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may affect fetal brain growth. However, human studies are scarce with conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with multiple neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years of age. We included 487 mother-child pairs from the prospective pregnancy cohort, "Rhea" in Crete, Greece. Maternal serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured at the first prenatal visit (13 ± 2.4 weeks). Cognitive functions at 4 years were assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by means of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Children of women in the high 25(OH) D tertile (>50.7 nmol/l) had 37% decreased number of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (IRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39, 0.99, p trend = 0.05) and 40% decreased number of total ADHD-like symptoms (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37, 0.95, p trend = 0.03) at 4 years of age, compared to children of women in the low 25(OH) D tertile (<38.4 nmol/l), after adjustment for several confounders. Similar associations were found with the hyperactivity/inattention score of the SDQ questionnaire. Children of mothers with high 25(OH) D levels had also fewer total behavioral difficulties (beta-coeff: -1.25, 95% CI -2.32, -0.19) and externalizing symptoms (beta-coeff: -0.87, 95% CI -1.58, -0.15) at preschool age. The observed associations were stronger in girls than in boys (p for interaction < 0.1). No association was observed between maternal 25(OH) D concentrations and cognitive function in preschoolers. Our results suggest that high maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties, especially ADHD-like symptoms at preschool age. SN - 1435-165X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28685401/High_maternal_vitamin_D_levels_in_early_pregnancy_may_protect_against_behavioral_difficulties_at_preschool_age:_the_Rhea_mother_child_cohort_Crete_Greece_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-1023-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -