Ghrelin, Amylin, Gastric Inhibitory Peptide and Cognition in Middle-Aged HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women: The Women's Interagency HIV Study.J Neurol Neurophysiol. 2017 Feb; 8(1)JN
To explore the gut-brain axis by examining gut hormone levels and cognitive test scores in women with (HIV+) and without (HIV-) HIV infection.
Participants included 356 women (248 HIV+, 108 at risk HIV-) in the Brooklyn Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with measured levels of ghrelin, amylin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between gut hormones and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score (WRAT), CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity.
Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection or among those at risk, ghrelin, amylin and GIP were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Better performance on cognitive tests was generally associated with higher ghrelin, amylin and GIP levels. However, the strength of association varied, as did significance level by HIV status.
Previous analyses in WIHS participants have suggested that higher BMI, waist, and WHR are associated with better cognitive function among women at mid-life with HIV infection. This study indicates that higher gut hormone levels are also associated with better cognition. Gut hormones may provide additional mechanistic insights regarding the association between obesity and Type 2 diabetes and cognition in middle-aged HIV+ and at risk HIV- women. In addition, measuring these hormones longitudinally would add to the understanding of mechanisms of actions of these hormones and their use as potential clinical tools for early identification and intervention on cognitive decline in this vulnerable population.