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Hypoxia tolerance and responses to hypoxic stress during heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
PLoS One 2017; 12(7):e0181109Plos

Abstract

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection and is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. Since PRV infects erythrocytes and farmed salmon frequently experience environmental hypoxia, the current study examined mutual effects of PRV infection and hypoxia on pathogenesis and fish performance. Furthermore, effects of HSMI on hypoxia tolerance, cardiorespiratory performance and blood oxygen transport were studied. A cohabitation trial including PRV-infected post-smolts exposed to periodic hypoxic stress (4 h of 40% O2; PRV-H) at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection (WPI) and infected fish reared under normoxic conditions (PRV) was conducted. Periodic hypoxic stress did not influence infection levels or histopathological changes in the heart. Individual incipient lethal oxygen saturation (ILOS) was examined using a standardized hypoxia challenge test (HCT). At 7 WPI, i.e. peak level of infection, both PRV and PRV-H groups exhibited reduced hypoxia tolerance compared to non-infected fish. Three weeks later (10 WPI), during peak levels of pathological changes, reduced hypoxia tolerance was still observed for the PRV group while PRV-H performed equal to non-infected fish, implying a positive effect of the repeated exposure to hypoxic stress. This was in line with maximum heart rate (fHmax) measurements, showing equal performance of PRV-H and non-infected groups, but lower fHmax above 19°C as well as lower temperature optimum (Topt) for aerobic scope for PRV, suggesting reduced cardiac performance and thermal tolerance. In contrast, the PRV-H group had reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon suffering from HSMI have reduced hypoxia tolerance and cardiac performance, which can be improved by preconditioning fish to transient hypoxic stress episodes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Section of Immunology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo and Harstad, Norway.Section of Immunology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo and Harstad, Norway.Nofima AS, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries & Aquaculture Research, Ås, Norway.Section of Immunology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo and Harstad, Norway.University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway.PatoGen AS, Ålesund, Norway.Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.Nofima AS, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries & Aquaculture Research, Ås, Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28700748

Citation

Lund, Morten, et al. "Hypoxia Tolerance and Responses to Hypoxic Stress During Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar)." PloS One, vol. 12, no. 7, 2017, pp. e0181109.
Lund M, Krudtaa Dahle M, Timmerhaus G, et al. Hypoxia tolerance and responses to hypoxic stress during heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PLoS ONE. 2017;12(7):e0181109.
Lund, M., Krudtaa Dahle, M., Timmerhaus, G., Alarcon, M., Powell, M., Aspehaug, V., ... Jørgensen, S. M. (2017). Hypoxia tolerance and responses to hypoxic stress during heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PloS One, 12(7), pp. e0181109. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181109.
Lund M, et al. Hypoxia Tolerance and Responses to Hypoxic Stress During Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar). PLoS ONE. 2017;12(7):e0181109. PubMed PMID: 28700748.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hypoxia tolerance and responses to hypoxic stress during heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). AU - Lund,Morten, AU - Krudtaa Dahle,Maria, AU - Timmerhaus,Gerrit, AU - Alarcon,Marta, AU - Powell,Mark, AU - Aspehaug,Vidar, AU - Rimstad,Espen, AU - Jørgensen,Sven Martin, Y1 - 2017/07/11/ PY - 2017/01/06/received PY - 2017/06/25/accepted PY - 2017/7/13/entrez PY - 2017/7/13/pubmed PY - 2017/9/26/medline SP - e0181109 EP - e0181109 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 12 IS - 7 N2 - Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection and is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. Since PRV infects erythrocytes and farmed salmon frequently experience environmental hypoxia, the current study examined mutual effects of PRV infection and hypoxia on pathogenesis and fish performance. Furthermore, effects of HSMI on hypoxia tolerance, cardiorespiratory performance and blood oxygen transport were studied. A cohabitation trial including PRV-infected post-smolts exposed to periodic hypoxic stress (4 h of 40% O2; PRV-H) at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection (WPI) and infected fish reared under normoxic conditions (PRV) was conducted. Periodic hypoxic stress did not influence infection levels or histopathological changes in the heart. Individual incipient lethal oxygen saturation (ILOS) was examined using a standardized hypoxia challenge test (HCT). At 7 WPI, i.e. peak level of infection, both PRV and PRV-H groups exhibited reduced hypoxia tolerance compared to non-infected fish. Three weeks later (10 WPI), during peak levels of pathological changes, reduced hypoxia tolerance was still observed for the PRV group while PRV-H performed equal to non-infected fish, implying a positive effect of the repeated exposure to hypoxic stress. This was in line with maximum heart rate (fHmax) measurements, showing equal performance of PRV-H and non-infected groups, but lower fHmax above 19°C as well as lower temperature optimum (Topt) for aerobic scope for PRV, suggesting reduced cardiac performance and thermal tolerance. In contrast, the PRV-H group had reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon suffering from HSMI have reduced hypoxia tolerance and cardiac performance, which can be improved by preconditioning fish to transient hypoxic stress episodes. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28700748/Hypoxia_tolerance_and_responses_to_hypoxic_stress_during_heart_and_skeletal_muscle_inflammation_in_Atlantic_salmon__Salmo_salar__ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181109 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -