Producing Amorphous Solid Dispersions via Co-Precipitation and Spray Drying: Impact to Physicochemical and Biopharmaceutical Properties.J Pharm Sci. 2018 01; 107(1):183-191.JP
Many small-molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) exhibit low aqueous solubility and benefit from generation of amorphous dispersions of the API and polymer to improve their dissolution properties. Spray drying and hot-melt extrusion are 2 common methods to produce these dispersions; however, for some systems, these approaches may not be optimal, and it would be beneficial to have an alternative route. Herein, amorphous solid dispersions of compound A, a low-solubility weak acid, and copovidone were made by conventional spray drying and co-precipitation. The physicochemical properties of the 2 materials were assessed via X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The amorphous dispersions were then formulated and tableted, and the performance was assessed in vivo and in vitro. In human dissolution studies, the co-precipitation tablets had slightly slower dissolution than the spray-dried dispersion, but both reached full release of compound A. In canine in vitro dissolution studies, the tablets showed comparable dissolution profiles. Finally, canine pharmacokinetic studies showed that the materials had comparable values for the area under the curve, bioavailability, and Cmax. Based on the summarized data, we conclude that for some APIs, co-precipitation is a viable alternative to spray drying to make solid amorphous dispersions while maintaining desirable physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics.