Flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation modulates growth performance, blood lipids, intestinal fermentation, bile acids, and neutral sterols in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.J Anim Sci. 2017 Jul; 95(7):3068-3078.JA
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and to contain similar standardized ileal digestible AA contents and meet other nutrient requirements for growing pigs. The experiment lasted for 28 d. Average daily feed intake; ADG; G:F; ATTD of fat, serum lipids, and digesta; and fecal VFA, BA, and NS concentrations were determined. Pigs fed the control or OH had greater final BW (< 0.001), ADFI (= 0.005), and ADG (< 0.001) than FM-fed pigs. The ATTD of fat in the FM was lowest at 70.1% followed by 79.2% in OH and was greatest at 92.4% in the control (= 0.020). Total serum cholesterol content was 2.25 and 1.99 mmol/L and lower (< 0.001) in pigs fed FM and OH, respectively, than the 2.36 mmol/L in pigs fed the control. Pigs fed the FM and OH had greater ileal and cecal total VFA (< 0.001), ileal deoxycholic acid (< 0.01), and cecal (< 0.001) and fecal cholesterol (= 0.002) concentrations than those fed the control. Pigs fed the FM excreted more fecal lithocholic acid (= 0.002) and ursodeoxycholic acid (= 0.001) compared with those that consumed the control and OH. The concentrations of coprostanol in cecal digesta (< 0.001) and feces (= 0.011) were higher in pigs fed the FM and OH than in pigs fed the control. In conclusion, feeding flaxseed meal and oat hulls induced intestinal fermentation; however, the former depressed growth performance whereas the latter did not have any effect. Addition of flaxseed meal and oat hulls in growing pig diets reduced fat digestibility and serum cholesterol and stimulated malabsorption of primary BA and excretion of secondary BA and NS.