Gaseous Mediators in Gastrointestinal Mucosal Defense and Injury.Dig Dis Sci. 2017 09; 62(9):2223-2230.DD
Of the numerous gaseous substances that can act as signaling molecules, the best characterized are nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. Contributions of each of these low molecular weight substances, alone or in combination, to maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity have been established. There is considerable overlap in the actions of these gases in modulating mucosal defense and responses to injury, and in some instances they act in a cooperative manner. Each also play important roles in regulating inflammatory and repair processes throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of novel anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective drugs that exploit the beneficial activities of one or more of these gaseous mediators.