[Obesity-related glomerulopathy: Mechanisms of development, clinical course].Ter Arkh 2017; 89(6):97-101TA
Obesity and overweight are recognized as epidemics of non-communicable diseases in the 21st century. The kidneys are a target organ for obesity, damage to which is considered to be an independent risk factor for the development of renal failure. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (OGP) is one of the types of renal injury in obesity, which is characterized by the development of proteinuria in patients with a body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m2 in the absence of other causes of kidney damage. The pathogenesis of OGP is multifactorial. It is associated with intrarenal hemodynamic disorders - the development of renal hyperfiltration, the damaging action of adipose tissue hormones (hyperleptinemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, decreased production of adiponectin); with ectopic lipid accumulation in the kidney. The morphological pattern of OGP is characterized by a low glomerular density (oligonephronia) that leads to glomerular and tubular hypertrophy; by the development of perihilar focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), obvious podocyte damages, and the development of a fatty kidney. The clinical picture of OGP is characterized by the slow and gradual development of albuminuria, not exceeding Stage A3 (300-1999 mg/day). Approximately one-third of patients develop partial nephrotic syndrome with massive proteinuria, but without edema and hypoproteinemia. Complete nephrotic syndrome is observed in not more than 6% of patients with OGP. In the course of the disease, 50% of patients develop hypertension and more than 80% do dyslipidemia. Stages IV-V chronic kidney disease may develop 20-30 years after the disease occurs.