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Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?

Abstract

A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants/children of those pregnancies suggest protective associations, but the findings are inconsistent. Fish oil provision to pregnant women is associated with immunologic changes in cord blood. Studies performed to date indicate that provision of fish oil during pregnancy may reduce sensitisation to common food allergens and reduce prevalence and severity of atopic eczema in the first year of life, with a possible persistence until adolescence. A recent study reported that fish oil consumption in pregnancy reduces persistent wheeze and asthma in the offspring at ages 3 to 5 years. Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. eam@soton.ac.uk.

    Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. pcc@soton.ac.uk. NIHR Southampton Biomeducal Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. pcc@soton.ac.uk.

    Source

    Nutrients 9:7 2017 Jul 21 pg

    MeSH

    Animals
    Child, Preschool
    Dermatitis, Atopic
    Diet
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Fish Oils
    Fishes
    Food Hypersensitivity
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Inflammation
    Lipid Metabolism
    Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Meta-Analysis as Topic
    Pregnancy
    Prevalence
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Risk Factors
    Seafood

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28754005

    Citation

    Miles, Elizabeth A., and Philip C. Calder. "Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?" Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 7, 2017.
    Miles EA, Calder PC. Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease? Nutrients. 2017;9(7).
    Miles, E. A., & Calder, P. C. (2017). Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease? Nutrients, 9(7), doi:10.3390/nu9070784.
    Miles EA, Calder PC. Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease. Nutrients. 2017 Jul 21;9(7) PubMed PMID: 28754005.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease? AU - Miles,Elizabeth A, AU - Calder,Philip C, Y1 - 2017/07/21/ PY - 2017/06/30/received PY - 2017/07/17/revised PY - 2017/07/19/accepted PY - 2017/7/30/entrez PY - 2017/7/30/pubmed PY - 2018/5/19/medline KW - allergy KW - asthma KW - early life origins KW - eczema KW - eicosanoid KW - inflammation KW - omega-3 KW - omega-6 KW - polyunsaturated fatty acid KW - resolution JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 9 IS - 7 N2 - A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants/children of those pregnancies suggest protective associations, but the findings are inconsistent. Fish oil provision to pregnant women is associated with immunologic changes in cord blood. Studies performed to date indicate that provision of fish oil during pregnancy may reduce sensitisation to common food allergens and reduce prevalence and severity of atopic eczema in the first year of life, with a possible persistence until adolescence. A recent study reported that fish oil consumption in pregnancy reduces persistent wheeze and asthma in the offspring at ages 3 to 5 years. Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28754005/Can_Early_Omega_3_Fatty_Acid_Exposure_Reduce_Risk_of_Childhood_Allergic_Disease L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu9070784 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -