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Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.
PLoS One 2017; 12(8):e0182048Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with a decreased risk of many degenerative diseases and cognitive function in particular; however, relevant information from Mediterranean regions, where the prototype Mediterranean diet is typically adhered to, have been very limited. Additionally, predefined Mediterranean diet (MeDi) scores with use of a priori cut-offs have been used very rarely, limiting comparisons between different populations and thus external validity of the associations. Finally, associations between individual components of MeDi (i.e., food groups, macronutrients) and particular aspects of cognitive performance have rarely been explored. We evaluated the association of adherence to an a priori defined Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components with dementia and specific aspects of cognitive function in a representative population cohort in Greece.

METHODS

Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), an on-going population-based study, exploring potential associations between diet and cognitive performance in a representative sample from Greek regions, were included in this analysis. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception) and a composite cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55), derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire.

RESULTS

Among 1,865 individuals (mean age 73±6 years, 41% male), 90 were diagnosed with dementia and 223 with mild cognitive impairment. Each unit increase in the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore) was associated with a 10% decrease in the odds for dementia. Adherence to the MeDi was also associated with better performance in memory, language, visuospatial perception and the composite cognitive score; the associations were strongest for memory. Fish consumption was negatively associated with dementia and cognitive performance positively associated with non-refined cereal consumption.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results suggest that adherence to the MeDi is associated with better cognitive performance and lower dementia rates in Greek elders. Thus, the MeDi in its a priori constructed prototype form may have cognitive benefits in traditional Mediterranean populations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. Eginition Hospital, 1st Neurology Clinic, Department of Social Medicine,Psychiatry and Neurology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.Laboratoty of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.Athens Association of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, Marousi, Greece.Laboratoty of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.Eginition Hospital, 1st Neurology Clinic, Athens, Greece.Biomedicine Diagnostic Laboratory, Athens, Greece.Eginition Hospital, 1st Neurology Clinic, Department of Social Medicine,Psychiatry and Neurology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Taub Institute for Research in Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, the Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28763509

Citation

Anastasiou, Costas A., et al. "Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Health: Initial Results From the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet." PloS One, vol. 12, no. 8, 2017, pp. e0182048.
Anastasiou CA, Yannakoulia M, Kosmidis MH, et al. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0182048.
Anastasiou, C. A., Yannakoulia, M., Kosmidis, M. H., Dardiotis, E., Hadjigeorgiou, G. M., Sakka, P., ... Scarmeas, N. (2017). Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet. PloS One, 12(8), pp. e0182048. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182048.
Anastasiou CA, et al. Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Health: Initial Results From the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0182048. PubMed PMID: 28763509.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet. AU - Anastasiou,Costas A, AU - Yannakoulia,Mary, AU - Kosmidis,Mary H, AU - Dardiotis,Efthimios, AU - Hadjigeorgiou,Giorgos M, AU - Sakka,Paraskevi, AU - Arampatzi,Xanthi, AU - Bougea,Anastasia, AU - Labropoulos,Ioannis, AU - Scarmeas,Nikolaos, Y1 - 2017/08/01/ PY - 2017/01/10/received PY - 2017/07/11/accepted PY - 2017/8/2/entrez PY - 2017/8/2/pubmed PY - 2017/10/19/medline SP - e0182048 EP - e0182048 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 12 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with a decreased risk of many degenerative diseases and cognitive function in particular; however, relevant information from Mediterranean regions, where the prototype Mediterranean diet is typically adhered to, have been very limited. Additionally, predefined Mediterranean diet (MeDi) scores with use of a priori cut-offs have been used very rarely, limiting comparisons between different populations and thus external validity of the associations. Finally, associations between individual components of MeDi (i.e., food groups, macronutrients) and particular aspects of cognitive performance have rarely been explored. We evaluated the association of adherence to an a priori defined Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components with dementia and specific aspects of cognitive function in a representative population cohort in Greece. METHODS: Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), an on-going population-based study, exploring potential associations between diet and cognitive performance in a representative sample from Greek regions, were included in this analysis. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception) and a composite cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55), derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 1,865 individuals (mean age 73±6 years, 41% male), 90 were diagnosed with dementia and 223 with mild cognitive impairment. Each unit increase in the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore) was associated with a 10% decrease in the odds for dementia. Adherence to the MeDi was also associated with better performance in memory, language, visuospatial perception and the composite cognitive score; the associations were strongest for memory. Fish consumption was negatively associated with dementia and cognitive performance positively associated with non-refined cereal consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adherence to the MeDi is associated with better cognitive performance and lower dementia rates in Greek elders. Thus, the MeDi in its a priori constructed prototype form may have cognitive benefits in traditional Mediterranean populations. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28763509/Mediterranean_diet_and_cognitive_health:_Initial_results_from_the_Hellenic_Longitudinal_Investigation_of_Ageing_and_Diet_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182048 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -