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Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit.
Int J Food Microbiol. 2017 Sep 18; 257:285-294.IJ

Abstract

The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R2=0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed in B. cinerea treated by triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary. The in vivo test also demonstrated considerable inhibitory effects of EO combination treatments. Average lesion diameter of pears treated with triple combination of cinnamon/rosemary/thyme (78, 1250, 39μg/mL) was 6mm and 8mm against B. cinerea and P. expansum respectively, in 10days at 25°C. Results also showed that double combination of thyme/cinnamon (78, 156μg/mL) has more inhibitory effect than single EO treatments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, P.O. Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran.Microbial Biotechnology Department, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), 3135933151 Karaj, Iran. Electronic address: hashemim@abrii.ac.ir.Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, P.O. Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: habibi@ac.um.ir.Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, P.O. Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28763743

Citation

Nikkhah, Mehdi, et al. "Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils Against Fungal Spoilage On Pear Fruit." International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 257, 2017, pp. 285-294.
Nikkhah M, Hashemi M, Habibi Najafi MB, et al. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;257:285-294.
Nikkhah, M., Hashemi, M., Habibi Najafi, M. B., & Farhoosh, R. (2017). Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 257, 285-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.06.021
Nikkhah M, et al. Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils Against Fungal Spoilage On Pear Fruit. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017 Sep 18;257:285-294. PubMed PMID: 28763743.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit. AU - Nikkhah,Mehdi, AU - Hashemi,Maryam, AU - Habibi Najafi,Mohammad B, AU - Farhoosh,Reza, Y1 - 2017/06/24/ PY - 2017/03/14/received PY - 2017/06/04/revised PY - 2017/06/21/accepted PY - 2017/8/2/pubmed PY - 2017/12/12/medline PY - 2017/8/2/entrez KW - Essential oils KW - Fractional inhibitory concentration KW - Fungal growth inhibition kinetics KW - Pear fruit KW - Two and three dimensional checker board SP - 285 EP - 294 JF - International journal of food microbiology JO - Int J Food Microbiol VL - 257 N2 - The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R2=0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed in B. cinerea treated by triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary. The in vivo test also demonstrated considerable inhibitory effects of EO combination treatments. Average lesion diameter of pears treated with triple combination of cinnamon/rosemary/thyme (78, 1250, 39μg/mL) was 6mm and 8mm against B. cinerea and P. expansum respectively, in 10days at 25°C. Results also showed that double combination of thyme/cinnamon (78, 156μg/mL) has more inhibitory effect than single EO treatments. SN - 1879-3460 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28763743/Synergistic_effects_of_some_essential_oils_against_fungal_spoilage_on_pear_fruit_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168-1605(17)30289-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -