Comparison of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase antibodies measured by five different kits in autoimmune thyroid diseases.Endocr J 2017; 64(10):955-961EJ
It is generally believed that the detection of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) is superior to that of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) for the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, limited data are available on the comparison of TgAb and TPOAb prevalence as a diagnostic measurement for Hashimoto's thyroiditis using sensitive immunoassays. We herein used five different current immunoassay kits (A-E) to compare the prevalence of TgAb and TPOAb in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 70), Graves' disease (n = 70), painless thyroiditis (n = 50), and healthy control subjects (n = 100). In patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, positive TgAb was significantly more frequent than positive TPOAb in kits A-D (mean ± SD of the four kits: 98.6 ± 1.7 vs 81.4 ± 2.0%). In patients with Graves' disease, TgAb prevalence was almost equivalent to that of TPOAb in five kits. Patients with painless thyroiditis exhibited positive TgAb significantly more frequently than positive TPOAb in kits A-D (73.5 ± 4.1 vs 33.0 ± 3.4%). The prevalence of TgAb alone was significantly higher than that of TPOAb alone in both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis in kits A-D. In kit E, TgAb and TPOAb prevalence did not differ significantly for any disease, and TgAb distribution was different from other kits. In conclusion, the prevalence of TgAb was higher than that of TPOAb in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis using commercially available kits. We suggest that TgAb immunoassay is the first choice of screening test for thyroid autoimmune abnormalities in Japan.