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Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.
Nutrients. 2017 Aug 03; 9(8)N

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal. anaqueiroz91@hotmail.com.Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Avenida Salvador Allende, n° 702, 1111 Maputo, Mozambique. tino_7117@hotmail.com. Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. tino_7117@hotmail.com.Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Avenida Salvador Allende, n° 702, 1111 Maputo, Mozambique. neusa.jessen@gmail.com. EPIUnit-Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, n° 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal. neusa.jessen@gmail.com.Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Avenida Salvador Allende, n° 702, 1111 Maputo, Mozambique. celianovela@gmail.com.Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal. pedromoreira@fcna.up.pt. EPIUnit-Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, n° 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal. pedromoreira@fcna.up.pt. Centro de Investigação em Atividade Física, Saúde e Lazer, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal. pedromoreira@fcna.up.pt.Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. nlunet@med.up.pt. EPIUnit-Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, n° 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal. nlunet@med.up.pt.Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal. patriciapadrao@fcna.up.pt. EPIUnit-Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, n° 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal. patriciapadrao@fcna.up.pt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28771193

Citation

Queiroz, Ana, et al. "Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique." Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 8, 2017.
Queiroz A, Damasceno A, Jessen N, et al. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique. Nutrients. 2017;9(8).
Queiroz, A., Damasceno, A., Jessen, N., Novela, C., Moreira, P., Lunet, N., & Padrão, P. (2017). Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique. Nutrients, 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080830
Queiroz A, et al. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 3;9(8) PubMed PMID: 28771193.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique. AU - Queiroz,Ana, AU - Damasceno,Albertino, AU - Jessen,Neusa, AU - Novela,Célia, AU - Moreira,Pedro, AU - Lunet,Nuno, AU - Padrão,Patrícia, Y1 - 2017/08/03/ PY - 2017/06/10/received PY - 2017/07/25/revised PY - 2017/07/27/accepted PY - 2017/8/4/entrez PY - 2017/8/5/pubmed PY - 2018/5/8/medline KW - Africa KW - Mozambique KW - salt KW - sodium KW - urinary potassium KW - urinary sodium JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 9 IS - 8 N2 - This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28771193/Urinary_Sodium_and_Potassium_Excretion_and_Dietary_Sources_of_Sodium_in_Maputo_Mozambique_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu9080830 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -