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Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors.
Materials (Basel). 2016 Jun 24; 9(7)M

Abstract

This study examined outstanding issues of sensitivity calibration methods for ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers and provides workable solutions based on physically measureable quantities, laser-based displacement measurement in particular. This leads to mutually consistent determination of transmitting and receiving sensitivities of sensors and transducers. Methods of circumventing problems of extraneous vibrations on free transmitters are used, giving the foundation for face-to-face calibration methods. Working on many ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers, their receiving and transmitting sensitivities are found to be always different, while their ratios exhibit unexpected similarity. This behavior is attributed to monopolar pulse generation and bipolar received signals due to electrical charge transfer during elastic wave motion and reflection on the back face. This is verified through a quantitative piezoelectric sensing experiment. Displacement vs. velocity calibration terminology is clarified, redefining the "V/µbar" reference for contact sensor calibration. With demonstrated differences in the transmitting and receiving sensitivities of transducers, the requirement of the Hill-Adams equation invalidates the basic premise of the currently formulated reciprocity calibration methods for acoustic emission transducers. In addition, the measured reciprocity parameter for the case of through-transmission significantly deviates from the approximate theoretical prediction. It is demonstrated that three methods provide reliable sensor calibration results that are complimentary among them.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ono@ucla.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28773632

Citation

Ono, Kanji. "Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors." Materials (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 9, no. 7, 2016.
Ono K. Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors. Materials (Basel). 2016;9(7).
Ono, K. (2016). Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors. Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 9(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9070508
Ono K. Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors. Materials (Basel). 2016 Jun 24;9(7) PubMed PMID: 28773632.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors. A1 - Ono,Kanji, Y1 - 2016/06/24/ PY - 2016/05/30/received PY - 2016/06/16/revised PY - 2016/06/20/accepted PY - 2017/8/5/entrez PY - 2016/6/24/pubmed PY - 2016/6/24/medline KW - Hill-Adams equation KW - acoustic emission KW - calibration KW - face-to-face KW - laser interferometry KW - sensors KW - transducers KW - tri-transducer method JF - Materials (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Materials (Basel) VL - 9 IS - 7 N2 - This study examined outstanding issues of sensitivity calibration methods for ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers and provides workable solutions based on physically measureable quantities, laser-based displacement measurement in particular. This leads to mutually consistent determination of transmitting and receiving sensitivities of sensors and transducers. Methods of circumventing problems of extraneous vibrations on free transmitters are used, giving the foundation for face-to-face calibration methods. Working on many ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers, their receiving and transmitting sensitivities are found to be always different, while their ratios exhibit unexpected similarity. This behavior is attributed to monopolar pulse generation and bipolar received signals due to electrical charge transfer during elastic wave motion and reflection on the back face. This is verified through a quantitative piezoelectric sensing experiment. Displacement vs. velocity calibration terminology is clarified, redefining the "V/µbar" reference for contact sensor calibration. With demonstrated differences in the transmitting and receiving sensitivities of transducers, the requirement of the Hill-Adams equation invalidates the basic premise of the currently formulated reciprocity calibration methods for acoustic emission transducers. In addition, the measured reciprocity parameter for the case of through-transmission significantly deviates from the approximate theoretical prediction. It is demonstrated that three methods provide reliable sensor calibration results that are complimentary among them. SN - 1996-1944 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28773632/Calibration_Methods_of_Acoustic_Emission_Sensors_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ma9070508 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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