Anaemia in pregnancy and associated factors: a cross sectional study of antenatal attendants at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital, Ghana.BMC Res Notes. 2017 Aug 11; 10(1):402.BR
Anaemia in pregnancy is an important health issue resulting in high maternal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with anaemia among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital in Ghana.
A cross-sectional study involving pregnant women seeking antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital was conducted between May and June, 2015. It involved the collection of data on socio demographic and obstetric variables, medical interventions and malaria infection, consumption of iron containing foods and supplements using a case record form and a structured questionnaire. Also, data on haemoglobin concentrations at first and current antenatal visit were collected. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis were done to determine factors associated with anaemia.
Out of the 316 participants, 129 (40.8%) were found to be anaemic (Hb <11.0 g/dl) at the time of their first ANC visit (mean Hb: 11.21 g/dl, range 6.8-15.1 g/dl). Seventy-nine (61.2%) of them had mild anemia (Hb 9.0-10.9 g/dl), 48 (37.2%) had moderate anemia (Hb 7.0-8.9 g/dl) whilst 2 (1.6%) had severe anemia (Hb <7.0 g/dl). During their most recent ANC visit, the prevalence of anaemia was found to be similar to that of the first visit with 131 (41.5%) of them being anaemic [mean Hb: 11.24 g/dl, range 8.10-14.5 g/dl]. The haemoglobin levels however improved significantly during the most recent visit compared to the first with none of the women being severely anaemic (Hb <7.0 g/dl). The prevalence of moderate anaemia reduced from 37.2% (CI 28.9-46.2) during the first visit to 19.1% (12.7-26.9) during the most recent visit, a reduction of 48.7%. Malaria infection, frequency at which one consumed fish/snails and gestational age at first ANC visit were the main factors found to be associated with anaemia among the pregnant women.
Malaria infection, fish/snails intake and gestational age at first ANC visit were significantly associated with anaemia. Addressing these factors can reduce the incidence of anaemia in pregnancy.