Sleep Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.Int Rev Neurobiol. 2017; 133:719-742.IR
The spectrum of sleep problems in Parkinson's disease (PD) is broad. These symptoms are recognized as being clinically relevant by the PD patients and may seriously affect their quality of life. Some studies reveal the occurrence of sleep disorders in more than half of the PD patients. The etiology is multifactorial and it mainly involves the degeneration of the sleep-regulating structures. Sleep disorders in PD can be classified into: disturbances of sleep and disturbances of wakefulness. Generic and specific scales were designed to help the screening and evaluation of sleep dysfunction. Further assessment can be done using sleep recording techniques, like actigraphy or polysomnography. All types of sleep disturbances may be encountered in PD: insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders, and restless legs syndrome. This chapter will focus on reviewing the main characteristics, pathophysiology, assessment, and management of the most frequent sleep disturbances encountered in PD.