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Cross-reactivity and cross-immunomodulation between venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and its effect in the production of polyspecific antivenom for Central America.
Toxicon. 2017 Nov; 138:43-48.T

Abstract

A mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys is used as immunogen to produce the polyspecific Central American antivenom (PoliVal-ICP). In this work, we studied the ability of each of these venoms to modulate the antibody response induced by the other two venoms included in the immunization mixture. For that, equine monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antivenoms were prepared and compared regarding their ability to neutralize the phospholipase A2, coagulant and lethal activities of each venom, and their anti-venom antibodies concentration. Results indicate that there is low cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between venoms of B. asper, C. simus and L. stenophrys, hence justifying the use of all of them as immunogens for the production of the Central American antivenom. It was also found that the venom of B. asper reduces the anti-crotalic response while the venom of C. simus does not affect the anti-bothropic response. On the other hand, the venoms of B. asper and C. simus increase the anti-lachesic response, and L. stenoprhys venom reduced both the anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic responses. On the basis of these results, the immunization strategy can be adjusted by preventing or taking advantage of cross-immunomodulation between venoms, in order to maximize the antibody response towards all venoms. Immune responses can be improved by injecting horses with several immunogen mixtures, composed by one or two of the three venoms, and administering them at different times during the immunization, eventually generating a high titer against the three venoms. Our results suggest that addressing the issue of immunomodulation by venoms might improve antivenom manufacture worldwide.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address: guillermo.leon@ucr.ac.cr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28803057

Citation

Arroyo, Cynthia, et al. "Cross-reactivity and Cross-immunomodulation Between Venoms of the Snakes Bothrops Asper, Crotalus Simus and Lachesis Stenophrys, and Its Effect in the Production of Polyspecific Antivenom for Central America." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 138, 2017, pp. 43-48.
Arroyo C, Solano S, Segura Á, et al. Cross-reactivity and cross-immunomodulation between venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and its effect in the production of polyspecific antivenom for Central America. Toxicon. 2017;138:43-48.
Arroyo, C., Solano, S., Segura, Á., Herrera, M., Estrada, R., Villalta, M., Vargas, M., Gutiérrez, J. M., & León, G. (2017). Cross-reactivity and cross-immunomodulation between venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and its effect in the production of polyspecific antivenom for Central America. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 138, 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.009
Arroyo C, et al. Cross-reactivity and Cross-immunomodulation Between Venoms of the Snakes Bothrops Asper, Crotalus Simus and Lachesis Stenophrys, and Its Effect in the Production of Polyspecific Antivenom for Central America. Toxicon. 2017;138:43-48. PubMed PMID: 28803057.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cross-reactivity and cross-immunomodulation between venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and its effect in the production of polyspecific antivenom for Central America. AU - Arroyo,Cynthia, AU - Solano,Sergio, AU - Segura,Álvaro, AU - Herrera,María, AU - Estrada,Ricardo, AU - Villalta,Mauren, AU - Vargas,Mariángela, AU - Gutiérrez,José María, AU - León,Guillermo, Y1 - 2017/08/09/ PY - 2017/07/04/received PY - 2017/08/06/revised PY - 2017/08/07/accepted PY - 2017/8/15/pubmed PY - 2019/1/10/medline PY - 2017/8/14/entrez KW - Bothrops asper KW - Crotalus simus KW - Immunization KW - Immunomodulation KW - Lachesis stenophrys KW - Snake antivenom KW - Snake venom SP - 43 EP - 48 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 138 N2 - A mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys is used as immunogen to produce the polyspecific Central American antivenom (PoliVal-ICP). In this work, we studied the ability of each of these venoms to modulate the antibody response induced by the other two venoms included in the immunization mixture. For that, equine monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antivenoms were prepared and compared regarding their ability to neutralize the phospholipase A2, coagulant and lethal activities of each venom, and their anti-venom antibodies concentration. Results indicate that there is low cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between venoms of B. asper, C. simus and L. stenophrys, hence justifying the use of all of them as immunogens for the production of the Central American antivenom. It was also found that the venom of B. asper reduces the anti-crotalic response while the venom of C. simus does not affect the anti-bothropic response. On the other hand, the venoms of B. asper and C. simus increase the anti-lachesic response, and L. stenoprhys venom reduced both the anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic responses. On the basis of these results, the immunization strategy can be adjusted by preventing or taking advantage of cross-immunomodulation between venoms, in order to maximize the antibody response towards all venoms. Immune responses can be improved by injecting horses with several immunogen mixtures, composed by one or two of the three venoms, and administering them at different times during the immunization, eventually generating a high titer against the three venoms. Our results suggest that addressing the issue of immunomodulation by venoms might improve antivenom manufacture worldwide. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28803057/Cross_reactivity_and_cross_immunomodulation_between_venoms_of_the_snakes_Bothrops_asper_Crotalus_simus_and_Lachesis_stenophrys_and_its_effect_in_the_production_of_polyspecific_antivenom_for_Central_America_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(17)30245-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -