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Comprehensive Analysis of the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Pallines Spinosa Flower and Leaf Essential Oils Against Breast Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem 2017; 42(5):2043-2065CP

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS

In our quest for new natural anticancer agents, we studied the cytotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from flowers and leaves of Pallines spinosa.

METHODS

The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and solid phase microextraction (SPME) from flowers and leaves of the plant and their composition was determined by GC/GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of the oils was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinomas, and the non-cancerous MCF-10-2A cells, using a flow cytometry-based assay Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, caspases activation, and Western blotting techniques, and cell cycle by measuring DNA contents.

RESULTS

The hydrodistilled flower oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes (96.39%), while the leaf sample was dominated by oxygenated-sesquiterpenes (51.60%) and sesquiterpene-hydrocarbons (34.06%). In contrast, the SPME oil contained mainly monoterpene-hydrocarbons (44.09%) and sesquiterpene-hydrocarbons (34.15%) in the flower and leaf samples, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the flower oil against MCF-7 (IC50 0.25 ± 0.03 µg/mL) and MDA-MB-231 (IC50 0.21 ± 0.03 µg/mL) was much stronger than the leaf oil (IC50 2.4 ± 0.5 µg/mL and 1.5 ± 0.1 µg/mL, respectively). The toxicity of the flower oil was ∼5 to 8-times less in normal MCF-10-2A (IC50 1.3 ± 0.2 µg/mL) and blood mononuclear cells (2.80 ± 0.45 µg/mL) as compared to breast and hematological cancer cells, respectively. Both oils induced a caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and altered the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. In addition, the oils arrested cell cycle in both cancer cell lines at G0/G1 phase by modulating the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21 proteins.

CONCLUSION

The cytotoxicity of P. spinosa oils were mediated by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting the potential use of their bioactive compounds as natural anticancer compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University (NSU), Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28803233

Citation

Saleh, Ayman M., et al. "Comprehensive Analysis of the Chemical Composition and in Vitro Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Pallines Spinosa Flower and Leaf Essential Oils Against Breast Cancer Cells." Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, vol. 42, no. 5, 2017, pp. 2043-2065.
Saleh AM, Al-Qudah MA, Nasr A, et al. Comprehensive Analysis of the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Pallines Spinosa Flower and Leaf Essential Oils Against Breast Cancer Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42(5):2043-2065.
Saleh, A. M., Al-Qudah, M. A., Nasr, A., Rizvi, S. A., Borai, A., & Daghistani, M. (2017). Comprehensive Analysis of the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Pallines Spinosa Flower and Leaf Essential Oils Against Breast Cancer Cells. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, 42(5), pp. 2043-2065. doi:10.1159/000479900.
Saleh AM, et al. Comprehensive Analysis of the Chemical Composition and in Vitro Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Pallines Spinosa Flower and Leaf Essential Oils Against Breast Cancer Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42(5):2043-2065. PubMed PMID: 28803233.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comprehensive Analysis of the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Pallines Spinosa Flower and Leaf Essential Oils Against Breast Cancer Cells. AU - Saleh,Ayman M, AU - Al-Qudah,Mahmoud A, AU - Nasr,Amre, AU - Rizvi,Sayed A, AU - Borai,Anwar, AU - Daghistani,Mustafa, Y1 - 2017/08/11/ PY - 2017/05/02/received PY - 2017/06/20/accepted PY - 2017/8/15/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline PY - 2017/8/14/entrez KW - Anticancer natural compounds KW - Apoptosis KW - Breast cancer cell lines KW - CDK4 KW - Cell cycle KW - Cyclin-D KW - Essential oils KW - G0/ G1 phase KW - Pallines spinosa KW - p21 SP - 2043 EP - 2065 JF - Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology JO - Cell. Physiol. Biochem. VL - 42 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND/AIMS: In our quest for new natural anticancer agents, we studied the cytotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from flowers and leaves of Pallines spinosa. METHODS: The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and solid phase microextraction (SPME) from flowers and leaves of the plant and their composition was determined by GC/GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of the oils was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinomas, and the non-cancerous MCF-10-2A cells, using a flow cytometry-based assay Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, caspases activation, and Western blotting techniques, and cell cycle by measuring DNA contents. RESULTS: The hydrodistilled flower oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes (96.39%), while the leaf sample was dominated by oxygenated-sesquiterpenes (51.60%) and sesquiterpene-hydrocarbons (34.06%). In contrast, the SPME oil contained mainly monoterpene-hydrocarbons (44.09%) and sesquiterpene-hydrocarbons (34.15%) in the flower and leaf samples, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the flower oil against MCF-7 (IC50 0.25 ± 0.03 µg/mL) and MDA-MB-231 (IC50 0.21 ± 0.03 µg/mL) was much stronger than the leaf oil (IC50 2.4 ± 0.5 µg/mL and 1.5 ± 0.1 µg/mL, respectively). The toxicity of the flower oil was ∼5 to 8-times less in normal MCF-10-2A (IC50 1.3 ± 0.2 µg/mL) and blood mononuclear cells (2.80 ± 0.45 µg/mL) as compared to breast and hematological cancer cells, respectively. Both oils induced a caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and altered the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. In addition, the oils arrested cell cycle in both cancer cell lines at G0/G1 phase by modulating the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21 proteins. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity of P. spinosa oils were mediated by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting the potential use of their bioactive compounds as natural anticancer compounds. SN - 1421-9778 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28803233/Comprehensive_Analysis_of_the_Chemical_Composition_and_In_Vitro_Cytotoxic_Mechanisms_of_Pallines_Spinosa_Flower_and_Leaf_Essential_Oils_Against_Breast_Cancer_Cells_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000479900 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -