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Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
Thyroid. 2017 09; 27(9):1185-1193.T

Abstract

BACKGROUND

This study aimed to explore the relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients.

METHODS

Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed.

RESULTS

In GD patients compared with euthyroid subjects, levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies and IgG4 as well as the IgG4/IgG ratio were elevated. GD patients having GO in comparison to not having GO were characterized by a female predominance; a high incidence of smoking history; high levels of T3, free T4, TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb) and IgG4; and a high IgG4/IgG ratio after adjusting for sex. In GD patients, the IgG4 level was the independent factor associated with GO development on multivariate analysis. When severity and activity of GO were classified using the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy criteria in GD patients with GO, IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratio were elevated in the moderate-to-severe group compared with the mild group and in the active group compared with the inactive group. IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratio became elevated as clinical activity score increased. IgG4 levels were positively correlated with TRAb levels. The high IgG4 group in comparison to the normal IgG4 group had a high incidence of family history of autoimmune thyroid disease, high levels of free T4, TRAb and IgG4, a high IgG4/IgG ratio and extensive hypoechogenicity.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that IgG4 levels are elevated in newly diagnosed GD patients compared with euthyroid subjects and in the presence of GO compared with the absence of GO. Moreover, our findings suggest that IgG4 levels are associated with the development and grade of GO in GD patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University , Seoul, Republic of Korea.2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28805160

Citation

Yu, Sung Hoon, et al. "Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy." Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, vol. 27, no. 9, 2017, pp. 1185-1193.
Yu SH, Kang JG, Kim CS, et al. Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 2017;27(9):1185-1193.
Yu, S. H., Kang, J. G., Kim, C. S., Ihm, S. H., Choi, M. G., Yoo, H. J., & Lee, S. J. (2017). Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy. Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 27(9), 1185-1193. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0126
Yu SH, et al. Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 2017;27(9):1185-1193. PubMed PMID: 28805160.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy. AU - Yu,Sung Hoon, AU - Kang,Jun Goo, AU - Kim,Chul Sik, AU - Ihm,Sung-Hee, AU - Choi,Moon Gi, AU - Yoo,Hyung Joon, AU - Lee,Seong Jin, PY - 2017/8/15/pubmed PY - 2018/5/23/medline PY - 2017/8/15/entrez KW - Graves' disease KW - Graves' ophthalmopathy KW - clinical activity score KW - immunoglobulin G4 KW - thyroid autoantibody SP - 1185 EP - 1193 JF - Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association JO - Thyroid VL - 27 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients. METHODS: Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed. RESULTS: In GD patients compared with euthyroid subjects, levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies and IgG4 as well as the IgG4/IgG ratio were elevated. GD patients having GO in comparison to not having GO were characterized by a female predominance; a high incidence of smoking history; high levels of T3, free T4, TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb) and IgG4; and a high IgG4/IgG ratio after adjusting for sex. In GD patients, the IgG4 level was the independent factor associated with GO development on multivariate analysis. When severity and activity of GO were classified using the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy criteria in GD patients with GO, IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratio were elevated in the moderate-to-severe group compared with the mild group and in the active group compared with the inactive group. IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratio became elevated as clinical activity score increased. IgG4 levels were positively correlated with TRAb levels. The high IgG4 group in comparison to the normal IgG4 group had a high incidence of family history of autoimmune thyroid disease, high levels of free T4, TRAb and IgG4, a high IgG4/IgG ratio and extensive hypoechogenicity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IgG4 levels are elevated in newly diagnosed GD patients compared with euthyroid subjects and in the presence of GO compared with the absence of GO. Moreover, our findings suggest that IgG4 levels are associated with the development and grade of GO in GD patients. SN - 1557-9077 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28805160/Clinical_Implications_of_Immunoglobulin_G4_to_Graves'_Ophthalmopathy_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/thy.2017.0126?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -