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Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha.
Equine Vet J. 2018 Mar; 50(2):192-195.EV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed.

OBJECTIVES

This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system (CNS) due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions.

STUDY DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

METHODS

A total of 14 horses with a history of neurological signs and spontaneous consumption of T. micrantha leaves were submitted to necropsy and multiple samples were collected for histopathology. Details of clinical history and signs of the horses were obtained through inquiries to the owners and attending veterinarians.

RESULTS

All the 14 horses had neurological signs of ataxia, severe sialorrhoea, involuntary running movements, sternal and lateral recumbency, and death after a clinical course that lasted from 24 h to 9 days. For a few days prior to onset of clinical signs, all horses had spontaneously consumed, potentially toxic doses of T. micrantha leaves. All 14 brains had diffuse yellowish discoloration affecting the rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon and corpus striatum. In all cases, the most severe lesions were observed in the pons. Spinal cord lesions were observed affecting the lumbar intumescence, which was swollen with darken and depressed areas at the dorsal and ventral horns, and at the sacral level, which on cut surface displayed a friable and yellowish grey matter. The lesions observed grossly in brain and spinal cord consisted microscopically of severe vasculitis and liquefactive necrosis of white and grey matter of the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord.

MAIN LIMITATIONS

This is a small retrospective series relying on clinical observations reported by owners and attending veterinarians. The mechanism of action of the plant toxin in the CNS is still unidentified.

CONCLUSION

T. micrantha poisoning in horses causes predominantly a neurological disease, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28805273

Citation

Lorenzett, M P., et al. "Neurotoxicosis in Horses Associated With Consumption of Trema Micrantha." Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 50, no. 2, 2018, pp. 192-195.
Lorenzett MP, Pereira PR, Bassuino DM, et al. Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha. Equine Vet J. 2018;50(2):192-195.
Lorenzett, M. P., Pereira, P. R., Bassuino, D. M., Konradt, G., Panziera, W., Bianchi, M. V., Argenta, F. F., Hammerschmitt, M. E., Caprioli, R. A., de Barros, C. S. L., Pavarini, S. P., & Driemeier, D. (2018). Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha. Equine Veterinary Journal, 50(2), 192-195. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.12741
Lorenzett MP, et al. Neurotoxicosis in Horses Associated With Consumption of Trema Micrantha. Equine Vet J. 2018;50(2):192-195. PubMed PMID: 28805273.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha. AU - Lorenzett,M P, AU - Pereira,P R, AU - Bassuino,D M, AU - Konradt,G, AU - Panziera,W, AU - Bianchi,M V, AU - Argenta,F F, AU - Hammerschmitt,M E, AU - Caprioli,R A, AU - de Barros,C S L, AU - Pavarini,S P, AU - Driemeier,D, Y1 - 2017/09/07/ PY - 2017/03/24/received PY - 2017/08/06/accepted PY - 2017/8/15/pubmed PY - 2018/8/18/medline PY - 2017/8/15/entrez KW - Cannabaceae KW - diseases of horses KW - horse KW - malacia KW - neuropathology KW - plant poisoning SP - 192 EP - 195 JF - Equine veterinary journal JO - Equine Vet. J. VL - 50 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system (CNS) due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A total of 14 horses with a history of neurological signs and spontaneous consumption of T. micrantha leaves were submitted to necropsy and multiple samples were collected for histopathology. Details of clinical history and signs of the horses were obtained through inquiries to the owners and attending veterinarians. RESULTS: All the 14 horses had neurological signs of ataxia, severe sialorrhoea, involuntary running movements, sternal and lateral recumbency, and death after a clinical course that lasted from 24 h to 9 days. For a few days prior to onset of clinical signs, all horses had spontaneously consumed, potentially toxic doses of T. micrantha leaves. All 14 brains had diffuse yellowish discoloration affecting the rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon and corpus striatum. In all cases, the most severe lesions were observed in the pons. Spinal cord lesions were observed affecting the lumbar intumescence, which was swollen with darken and depressed areas at the dorsal and ventral horns, and at the sacral level, which on cut surface displayed a friable and yellowish grey matter. The lesions observed grossly in brain and spinal cord consisted microscopically of severe vasculitis and liquefactive necrosis of white and grey matter of the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. MAIN LIMITATIONS: This is a small retrospective series relying on clinical observations reported by owners and attending veterinarians. The mechanism of action of the plant toxin in the CNS is still unidentified. CONCLUSION: T. micrantha poisoning in horses causes predominantly a neurological disease, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. SN - 2042-3306 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28805273/Neurotoxicosis_in_horses_associated_with_consumption_of_Trema_micrantha L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.12741 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -