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Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Oct; 106(4):1121-1130.AJ

Abstract

Background:

Some evidence suggests that higher energy intake (EI) later in the day is associated with poor diet quality and obesity. However, EI at one eating occasion (EO) is also dependent on EI at surrounding EOs. Studies that examine the distribution of EOs across the day are rare.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to examine associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity in a representative sample of Australian adults.

Design:

Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional 2011-2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed (n = 4544 adults, aged ≥19 y). Temporal eating patterns, based on the distribution of EOs across the day, were determined by using latent class analysis. Diet quality estimated adherence to healthy eating recommendations and was assessed by using the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). Multivariate regression models assessed associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference, weight status, and central weight status). Models were adjusted for potential confounders and energy misreporting.

Results:

Three patterns, labeled "conventional," "later lunch," and "grazing," were identified. Compared with a "conventional" or "later lunch" pattern, men and women with a "grazing" pattern had lower DGI scores and higher intakes of discretionary (noncore) foods (P < 0.05). Among women, the "grazing" pattern was associated with overweight or obesity (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.13) and central overweight or obesity (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.50). These associations were attenuated after the exclusion of energy misreporters and adjustment for total EI.

Conclusions:

This study found that a "grazing" temporal eating pattern was modestly but significantly associated with poorer diet quality and adiposity among women, after adjustment for covariates and energy misreporting. Future research should consider the impact of energy misreporting on the relation between temporal eating patterns and adiposity. This secondary analysis was registered at anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12617001029381.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia rleec@deakin.edu.au.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28814392

Citation

Leech, Rebecca M., et al. "Temporal Eating Patterns: Associations With Nutrient Intakes, Diet Quality, and Measures of Adiposity." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 106, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1121-1130.
Leech RM, Timperio A, Livingstone KM, et al. Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(4):1121-1130.
Leech, R. M., Timperio, A., Livingstone, K. M., Worsley, A., & McNaughton, S. A. (2017). Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(4), 1121-1130. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.156588
Leech RM, et al. Temporal Eating Patterns: Associations With Nutrient Intakes, Diet Quality, and Measures of Adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(4):1121-1130. PubMed PMID: 28814392.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity. AU - Leech,Rebecca M, AU - Timperio,Anna, AU - Livingstone,Katherine M, AU - Worsley,Anthony, AU - McNaughton,Sarah A, Y1 - 2017/08/16/ PY - 2017/03/09/received PY - 2017/07/24/accepted PY - 2017/8/18/pubmed PY - 2017/10/14/medline PY - 2017/8/18/entrez KW - diet quality KW - eating occasion KW - latent class analysis KW - meal timing KW - obesity SP - 1121 EP - 1130 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 106 IS - 4 N2 - Background: Some evidence suggests that higher energy intake (EI) later in the day is associated with poor diet quality and obesity. However, EI at one eating occasion (EO) is also dependent on EI at surrounding EOs. Studies that examine the distribution of EOs across the day are rare.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity in a representative sample of Australian adults.Design: Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional 2011-2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed (n = 4544 adults, aged ≥19 y). Temporal eating patterns, based on the distribution of EOs across the day, were determined by using latent class analysis. Diet quality estimated adherence to healthy eating recommendations and was assessed by using the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). Multivariate regression models assessed associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference, weight status, and central weight status). Models were adjusted for potential confounders and energy misreporting.Results: Three patterns, labeled "conventional," "later lunch," and "grazing," were identified. Compared with a "conventional" or "later lunch" pattern, men and women with a "grazing" pattern had lower DGI scores and higher intakes of discretionary (noncore) foods (P < 0.05). Among women, the "grazing" pattern was associated with overweight or obesity (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.13) and central overweight or obesity (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.50). These associations were attenuated after the exclusion of energy misreporters and adjustment for total EI.Conclusions: This study found that a "grazing" temporal eating pattern was modestly but significantly associated with poorer diet quality and adiposity among women, after adjustment for covariates and energy misreporting. Future research should consider the impact of energy misreporting on the relation between temporal eating patterns and adiposity. This secondary analysis was registered at anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12617001029381. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28814392/Temporal_eating_patterns:_associations_with_nutrient_intakes_diet_quality_and_measures_of_adiposity_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.117.156588 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -